Table 1

Characteristics of participants according to arm extensibility and presence of common carotid plaque

CharacteristicTotalArm extensibility testPresence of plaque
IncompleteCompleteP*NoYesP*
Number1354609745842512
Age (year)47.8±8.250.0±7.746.0±8.0<0.00145.3±8.152.1±6.2<0.001
Height (cm)170.5±5.9169.1±5.8171.7±5.7<0.001170.9±5.9169.8±0.90.001
BM (kg)68.0±10.069.3±10.766.9±9.3<0.00167.9±9.968.0±10.30.880
BMI (kg/m2)23.4±3.224.2±3.422.7±2.9<0.00123.3±3.223.6±3.20.087
% fat (%)22.5±5.623.6±5.821.6±5.2<0.00122.4±5.722.6±5.40.440
WC (cm)81.9±8.883.8±9.280.3±8.2<0.00181.4±8.782.7±8.90.008
SFA (cm2)120.7±67.3129.8±70.7113.3±63.5<0.001120.4±69.9121.2±63.00.829
VFA (cm2)71.0±44.781.0±47.662.8±40.5<0.00167.0±44.077.5±45.2<0.001
SBP (mm Hg)118.4±13.8119.8±14.8117.3±12.90.001116.0±12.5122.4±14.9<0.001
DBP (mm Hg)76.9±9.277.5±9.376.4±9.20.03075.7±8.978.8±9.5<0.001
PP (mm Hg)41.5±9.742.3±10.340.9±9.00.00640.3±9.143.6±10.2<0.001
TG (mg/dL)116.3±87.8123.8±98.2110.2±77.90.004113.2±89.7121.4±84.40.096
TC (mg/dL)203.6±31.7205.1±31.7202.4±31.60.113200.7±31.6208.5±31.3<0.001
HDL-C (mg/dL)60.6±16.159.6±15.961.5±16.20.03360.8±15.660.4±16.80.611
LDL-C (mg/dL)126.9±29.8128.2±30.3125.8±29.40.138124.0±29.7131.6±29.4<0.001
FBG (mg/dL)99.4±15.4101.8±16.797.4±14.1<0.00197.7±14.6102.1±16.4<0.001
HbA1c (%)5.57±0.585.65±0.605.50±0.55<0.0015.52±0.585.64±0.56<0.001
Mean IMT (mm)0.474±0.0900.492±0.0910.458±0.087<0.0010.450±0.0800.512±0.093<0.001
Plaque (%)†37.844.232.6<0.0010.0100.0<0.001
Arm extensibility (%)†55.00.0100.0<0.00159.647.5<0.001
Sit-and-reach (cm)32.7±9.730.0±9.134.8±9.5<0.00133.2±9.631.7±9.60.005
Handgrip (kg)41.2±5.741.2±5.941.1±5.50.79641.2±5.641.1±5.80.565
Sleeping time (hour)6.2±0.96.2±0.96.2±0.90.5846.2±0.96.2±0.90.662
Never smokers (%)†45.942.149.10.01147.144.10.281
Former smokers (%)†15.016.713.60.10213.317.80.025
Current smokers (%)†39.041.137.30.16139.538.10.593
Drinkers (%)†76.576.576.51.00076.576.60.974
Exercise habit (%)†67.468.067.00.69664.672.10.004
  • Data are mean±SD.

  • *P values from unpaired  t- test or χ2 test

  • †χ2 test.

  • BM, body mass;  BMI, body mass index; % fat, percentage of body fat; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IMT,  intima–media thickness; LDL-C,  low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PP, pulse pressure;  SBP, systolic blood pressure; SFA, subcutaneous fat area; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; VFA, visceral fat area; WC,  waist circumference.