Table 3

Summary of findings table presents the findings and the quality of each outcome using the GRADE considerations

WBV compared with usual care for fracture risk
Bibliography
OutcomesNo of participants
(studies)
Follow-up
Quality of the evidence
(GRADE)
Relative effect
(95% CI)
Anticipated absolute effects
Risk with usual careRisk difference with WBV
Fractures710
(1 RCT)
⨁⨁⨁◯
Moderate*
RR 0.48
(0.14 to 1.56)
2 per 1001 fewer per 100
(2 fewer to 1 more)
Fall rate/person-years746
(3 RCTs)
⨁⨁⨁◯
Moderate†
Rate ratio 0.67
(0.50 to 0.89)
34 per 10011 fewer per 100
(17 fewer to 4 fewer)
The risk of experiencing falls (fallers)805
(3 RCTs)
⨁⨁◯◯
Low‡
RR 0.76
(0.48 to 1.20)
23 per 1006 fewer per 100
(12 fewer to 5 more)
Total bone mineral density lumbar spine (BMD spine)911
(7 RCTs)
⨁⨁⨁◯
Moderate§
Mean 0
(0 to 0.01 higher)
BMD total hip (BMD hip)870
(6 RCTs)
⨁⨁◯◯
Low¶
Mean 0
(0 to 0.01 higher)
Volumetric bone mineral density tibia80
(2 RCTs)
⨁⨁◯◯
Low**
Mean 0.68 lower
(2.29 lower to 0.93 higher)
Volumetric BMD radius80
(2 RCTs)
⨁◯◯◯
Very low††
Mean 1.87 higher
(0.62 lower to 4.36 higher)
Serum biomarker of bone resorption (CTX)138
(2 RCTs)
⨁⨁◯◯
Low**
Mean 0.01 higher
(−0.06 lower to 0.08 higher)
Serum biomarker of bone formation (P1NP)118
(1 RCT)
⨁⨁◯◯
Low**
Mean 4.92 higher
(3.06 lower to 12.9 higher)
  • The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% CI) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).

  • High quality: We are very confident that the true effect lies close to that of the estimate of the effect; Moderate quality: We are moderately confident in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be close to the estimate of the effect, but there is a possibility that it is substantially different; Low quality: Our confidence in the effect estimate is limited: The true effect may be substantially different from the estimate of the effect; Very low quality: We have very little confidence in the effect estimate: The true effect is likely to be substantially different from the estimate of effect.

  • *Serious imprecision, due to the 95% CI around the estimate of effect includes both the possibility of no effect and appreciable benefit.

  • †Serious study limitations—lack of blinding of the participants reporting falls.

  • ‡Serious study limitations—lack of blinding of the participants reporting fall, and serious imprecision, due to the 95% CI around the pooled estimate of effect includes both the possibility of no effect and appreciable benefit.

  • §Indirectness (surrogate marker for bone strength).

  • ¶Indirectness, and statistical heterogeneity

  • **Indirectness, and imprecision due to the 95% CI around the estimate of effect includes both the possibility of no effect and appreciable benefit.

  • ††indirectness, and imprecision due to the 95% CI around the estimate of effect includes both the possibility of no effect and appreciable benefit and statistical heterogeneity.

  • BMD, bone mineral density; CTX, carboxy-terminal collagen cross-link; GRADE, Working Group grades of evidence; P1NP, propeptide of type I collagen; RCTs, randomised controlled trials; RR, risk ratio; WBV, whole-body vibration.