Table 2

Participant characteristics

StudyCountryRiskMother mean age at start, in yearsChild age at start, in monthsPrimiparous %Intervention, nControl, n
Ammaniti et al 56 ItalyDepressive or psychosocial risk33Third trimesterNot reported4744
Baggett et al 43 USALow incomeIntervention: 25; control: 27~4 Mean number of children: 1.752020
Barlow et al 59 UKVulnerable<17 years: intervention—17.9%; control—22.2%Second trimesterNot reported6863
Bridgeman et al 47 USALow income17–352Not reportedUnclear*
Cassidy et al 44 USANBAS or low income246.5–91008584
Fergusson et al 57 58 New ZealandTwo or more risk factors presentMother: intervention—24; control—24
Father: intervention—27; control—27
Not reported (recruited within 3 months of birth)Not reported206221
Høivik et al 45 NorwayInteractional problems307.3728870
Kaminski et al 36 USALow income24Prenatally (LA), at birth (Miami)Not reported338236
Katz et al 46 USAAfrican–American with inadequate prenatal care250 Mean number of children: 2.9146140
Mendelsohn et al 48 USALow-educated Latina mothersIntervention: 30; control: 300.5Intervention: 21.2; control: 36.27773
Salomonsson et al 52 53 54 SwedenWorried mothersIntervention: ~34; control: ~32Intervention: 4.4; control: 5.9Intervention: 81; control: 784040
Sierau et al 55 GermanyEconomic and social risk factorsIntervention: 21; control: 22Third trimester100394361
Taylor et al 42 USAPoverty, single marital status, low education, age <20, previous substance abuse or a history of abuseIntervention (n): <20: 44; 20–30: 122; >30: 34; control: <20: 58; 20–30: 108; >30: 343Not reported5050
van den Boom et al 49 50 The NetherlandsLower class mothers with irritable infantsMother: 25
Father: intervention—28; control—29
Klein Velderman et al 51 The NetherlandsInsecure attachment28~71005427
  • *The study only reported number of participants in each analysis.

  • NBAS, Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale.