Table 3

Intervention characteristics

StudyName of interventionNInterventionControlOutcome
BeginsIntensityFormatEnds/durationMeasureChild age
Ammaniti et al 56 Home Visiting Programme918 months pregnantWeekly and every second week; ~36 sessionsHome visitsEnds: 12 months of ageNo interventionParent–child relationship12 months
Baggett et al 43 Infant net403–8 months of age10 online sessions + 1 read to me session + weekly coach callsWeb coachingDuration: 6 monthsTAU + provided computer and internet technologyParent–child relationship~10 months
Barlow et al 59 Intervention based on the Family Partnership Model1316 months antenatalWeekly (mean sessions 41.2)Home visitsDuration: 18 monthsTAUParent–child relationship
Child development
12 months
Bridgeman et al 47 Parent Child Development CenterUnclear*2 months of ageTwice a week for a total of 6 hoursIndividual sessionsEnds: 36 months of ageNo interventionParent–child relationship
Child development†
36 months
Cassidy et al 44 Circle of security, home visiting1746.5–9 months of age1 hour every 3 weeksHome visitsDuration: 3 monthsPsychoeducational sessions (3 times 1 hour)Parent–child relationship†12 months
Fergusson et al 57 58 Early start (2 levels of intensity)443Recruited within 3 months of birthVaried; low level: up to 2.5 hours per 3 monthsHome visitsDuration 36 monthsNo interventionChild development~36 months
~9 years
Høivik et al 45 Video feedback, Marte Meo158Varies, between 0–24 months of age ~7.3 months of age8 sessions, 9–13 months (mean 11.5 months)Home visitsDuration: 9–13 monthsTAU + health centre nurses if neededParent–child relationship
Child development
~9–10 months
~15–16 months
Kaminski et al 36 Legacy for children574Prenatal in LAWeekly (2.5 hour) for 3 years in LAGroup sessions and individual sessionsDuration: 3 years in LANo interventionChild development~36 months
~48 months
~60 months
Kaminski et al 36 Legacy for childrenAt birth in MiamiWeekly (1.5 hour) for 5 years in MiamiGroup sessions and individual sessionsEnds: 5 years of age in MiamiNo interventionChild development~60 months
Katz et al 46 Pride in Parenting Programme286At birthWeekly from birth through 4 months and biweekly from 5 to 12 monthsHome visits + groups sessionsEnds: 12 months of ageTAU + monthly contacts from a hospital-based social workerChild development12 months
Mendelsohn et al 48 Video Interaction
1502 weeks postpartum12 sessions (30–45 min each)Individual sessionsEnds: 36 months of ageTAUChild development33 months
Salomonsson et al 52 53 54 Psychoanalytic treatment80Varied: infants below 1½ years, mean age <6 months23 session (median), 2–3 hours per weekIndividual sessionsDuration: unclear, assumingly 6 monthsTAUParent–child relationship
Child development
4½ years
~11 months
~54 months
Sierau et al 55 Pro Kind75536 gestational weeks (assumingly)Weekly (first 4 weeks after programme intake and 4 weeks after birth), biweekly and monthly (last half year of treatment)Home visitsEnds: 24 months old (assumingly)TAUParent–child relationship
Child development
24 months
Taylor et al 42 Group well child care2203 months of age7 sessions (45–60 min) up to 15 monthsGroup sessionsEnds: ~15 months of ageIndividual well child care‡Parent–child relationship†
Child development†
~15 months
van den Boom5 49 1006 months of age (baseline 10 days after birth)1 session (2 hours) every 3 weeks for 3 monthsHome visitsEnds: 9 months of child’s ageNo interventionParent–child relationship9 months
12 months
18 months
Klein Velderman et al 51 1. VIPP
81~7 months of age4 visits (1.5–3 hours) over 9–12 weeksHome visitsDuration: 9–12 weeksNo interventionParent–child relationship11–13 months
13 months
  • *Study only reported number of participants in each analysis.

  • †Outcome(s) not included in meta-analysis.

  • ‡Two active intervention groups, no control group.

  • TAU, treatment as usual; VIPP, Video Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting; VIPP-R, Video Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting with Discussions on the Representational Level.