Table 2

Descriptions and examples of context of overdiagnosis discussion

Overdiagnosis contextDescriptionExample
Overdiagnosis estimationProviding a quantitative estimate of overdiagnosisEstimation of overdiagnosis in low-dose CT screening for lung cancer66
Disease definitionSetting thresholds to define the absence or presence of a disease, or distinguishing between two subcategories within a diseaseCurrent definitions of airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease yield overdiagnosis in primary care67
Overdiagnosis communicationAssessing and improving the understanding of overdiagnosis in the general public and improving overdiagnosis dissemination by the healthcare professionalsAssessing what the general public thinks is meant by the term ‘overdiagnosis’43
Incidental findingsAn abnormality found of an unrelated condition during either diagnostic testing or surgeryRelevance of incidental findings when screening for a disorder in the abdominal area using multidetector contrast-enhanced CT68
GenomicsSpurious genetic abnormalitiesImplications of genetic screening for common cancers in children69