Table 5

Parent–child relationship outcomes as reported across studies included in the systematic review

StudyMeasureAssessmentChild age (months)InterventionControlCohen’s d Other statistics
nMeanSDnMeanSD
Ammaniti et al 56 Sensitivity (M) SMIISV12457.251.06376.671.31 0.49 (0.05; 0.93)
Cooperation (D) SMIISV12458.110.94377.671.190.42 (−0.02; 0.85)
Interference (M) SMIIS*V12451.360.81371.520.800.20 (−0.24; 0.63)
Affective state (M) SMIIS*V12451.150.44371.390.660.44 (−0.00; 0.88)
Self-regulative behaviours (C) SMIISV12451.920.95371.960.99−0.04 (−0.48; 0.39)
Baggett et al 43 Positive behaviours (C) LandryV~102020 0.69 (0.05; 1.33) Eta2=0.107
Positive behaviours (P) LandryV~1020200.45 (−0.17; 1.08)Eta2=0.049
Barlow et al 59 Sensitivity (M) CARE-indexV12629.272.67598.23.26 0.36 (0.00; 0.72)
Cooperativeness (C) CARE-indexV12629.353.08597.923.7 0.42 (0.06; 0.78)
Bridgeman et al 47 Positive Language (M) (in-house)V364230.2627.07317.2439.93 0.70 (0.22; 1.17)
Sensitivity (M) Ainsworth’s Rating ScaleV36426.291.62315.192.30 0.57 (0.09; 1.04)
Acceptance (M) Ainsworth’s Rating ScaleV36426.871.31316.521.550.25 (−0.22; 0.71)
Cooperation (M) Ainsworth’s Rating ScaleV36426.031.96315.481.980.28 (−0.19; 0.75)
Høivik et al 45 EAS*V~9–1073151.9019.652145.8429.240.25 (-0.11; 0.61)
Salomonsson et al 54 Sensitivity (M) EASV~11380.640.13370.570.17 0.46 (0.00; 0.92)
Structuring (M) EASV~11380.710.12370.680.160.21 (−0.24; 0.67)
No intrusiveness (M) EASV~11380.780.16370.730.230.25 (−0.20; 0.71)
Responsiveness (C) EASV~11380.700.13370.670.200.18 (−0.28; 0.63)
Involvement (C) EASV~11380.690.14370.660.190.18 (−0.27; 0.63)
van den Boom49 Interactive behaviour (M) (in-house)V9~47~47 1.78 (1.30; 2.26)
Interactive behaviour (C) (in-house)V*9~47~48 1.54 (1.08; 2.00)
Klein Velderman et al 51 Sensitivity (M) Ainsworth’s Rating ScaleV11–135427 0.48 (0.02; 0.95)
Sierau et al 55 Affectivity (D) MBRS-RV241463.160.611423.350.63 −0.31 (−0.54; −0.07)
Responsiveness (D) MBRS-R241453.380.701403.540.68−0.23 (−0.46; 0.00)
Taylor et al 42 NCATSV~155059.56.15059.46.00.00 (−0.39; 0.39)‡
SFParent–child relationship
Høivik et al 45 EAS* V~15–1663153.4022.3347156.1519.250.13 (−0.25; 0.51)
MFParent–child relationship
van den Boom50 Acceptance (M) based on AinsworthV18436.861.19395.951.88 0.58 (0.14; 1.03) F=7.04
Accessibility (M) based on AinsworthV18436.881.50395.871.89 0.60 (0.15; 1.04) F=7.26
Cooperation (M) based on AinsworthV18436.701.68395.181.65 0.91 (0.46;1.37) F=16.92
Sensitivity (M) based on AinsworthV18436.701.42395.261.92 0.86 (0.41; 1.31) F=15.14
LFParent–child relationship
Salomonsson et al 54 Sensitivity (M) EASV54330.680.12330.670.160.07 (−0.41; 0.55)
Structuring (M) EASV54330.660.12330.690.13−0.24 (−0.72; 0.24)
No intrusiveness (M) EASV54330.820.12330.810.140.08 (−0.406; 0.56)
Responsiveness (C) EASV54330.690.19330.740.15−0.29 (−0.78; 0.19)
Involvement (C) EASV54330.670.13330.720.16−0.34 (−0.83; 0.14)
PIAttachment
Cassidy et al 44 Attachment SSPV1285840.30 (−0.06; 0.66)§B=0.54 (SE=0.33), OR=1.72 (0.90; 3.28)¶
Klein Velderman et al 51 Attachment SSPV1354270.22 (−0.22; 0.66)
SFAttachment
van den Boom49 Attachment SSPV125050 0.97 (0.48; 1.45)§Secure/insecure: intervention—31/19; control—11/39
OR=5.78 (2.40; 13.94); L2(1)=16.96
MFAttachment
van den Boom50 Attachment SSPV184339 1.07 (0.58; 1.57)§χ2=18.35
LFAttachment
Salomonsson et al 53 Secure attachment SSAPV54312.221.05302.321.33−0.08 (−0.59; 0.42)
Avoidant attachment SSAP*V54311.050.48301.160.520.22 (−0.28; 0.72)
Ambivalent attachment SSAP*V54310.960.73300.840.61−0.18 (−0.68; 0.32)
Disorganised attachment SSAP*V54310.800.84300.630.58−0.23 (−0.74; 0.27)
  • Significant effect sizes are marked with bold.

  • *Reverse scoring—high score is negative.

  • †Adjusted for pretest sensitivity.

  • ‡No control group. Two interventions were compared.

  • §Calculation based on dichotomous outcome

  • ¶Adjusted for income, infant sex and irritability.

  • C, child; CARE, Child–Adult Relationship Experimental; EAS, Emotional Availability Scales; LF, long-term follow-up (>12 months postintervention); M, mother; MBRS-R, Maternal Behaviour Rating Scale-Revised; MF, mid-term follow-up (7–12 months); NCATS, Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale; O, observation; P, parent; PI, postintervention; Q, questionnaire; SF, short-term follow-up (≤6 months postintervention); SMIIS, Scales of Mother-Infant Interactional System; SSAP, Story Stem Assessment Profile; SSP, Strange Situation Procedure; U, unadjusted; V, video.