Table 2

Participation in cancer screening or testing by diet group of women and men in the EPIC-Oxford study

Cancer screening or testing/diet groupParticipants answering the relevant question, n*Participants answering in the affirmative, n (%)*Prevalence ratio (95% CI)*
Breast screening†
 Meat eaters92398813 (95.4)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters21431928 (90.0)0.96 (0.92 to 1.01)
 Vegetarians23952078 (86.8)0.94 (0.89 to 0.98)
 Vegans239182 (76.2)0.82 (0.71 to 0.95)
P heterogeneity=0.004
Cervical screening‡
 Meat eaters15 93615 365 (96.4)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters45134369 (96.8)1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)
 Vegetarians65746268 (95.3)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)
 Vegans758691 (91.2)0.94 (0.87 to 1.02)
P heterogeneity=0.37
Prostate-specific antigen testing§
 Meat eaters30781066 (34.6)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters594181 (30.5)0.99 (0.85 to 1.17)
 Vegetarians947228 (24.1)0.82 (0.71 to 0.96)
 Vegans16433 (20.1)0.72 (0.50 to 1.02)
P heterogeneity=0.023
  • *Number answering the relevant question and n (%) answering in the affirmative were as observed. Prevalence ratios were adjusted for age at follow-up (<40, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, ≥75 years, as appropriate according to the age range of included participants), region of residence (eight regions) and self-reported current health (excellent, good, fair, poor, unknown).

  • †Included women aged 50–74 who answered the relevant question on the second (10-year) follow-up questionnaire.

  • ‡Included women aged 25–74 who answered the relevant question on the first (5-year) follow-up questionnaire.

  • §Included men aged 50–84 who answered the relevant question on the second (10-year) follow-up questionnaire.