Table 5

Medication use for specific conditions by diet group of participants in the EPIC-Oxford study*

Condition/diet groupParticipants reporting the condition, n (mean years since reported diagnosis)†Participants taking appropriate medication, n (%)†Prevalence ratio (95% CI)†
High blood pressure‡
 Meat eaters4397 (9.8)2573 (58.5)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters686 (9.3)357 (52.0)0.97 (0.86 to 1.08)
 Vegetarians944 (9.0)430 (45.6)0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)
 Vegans85 (9.0)40 (47.1)0.92 (0.67 to 1.26)
P heterogeneity=0.37
High blood cholesterol§
 Meat eaters3351 (6.3)1646 (49.1)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters561 (5.3)209 (37.3)0.88 (0.76 to 1.01)
 Vegetarians645 (5.5)243 (37.7)0.94 (0.81 to 1.08)
 Vegans44 (7.1)14 (31.8)0.74 (0.44 to 1.26)
P heterogeneity=0.20
Asthma¶
 Meat eaters1885 (25.3)737 (39.1)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters496 (23.2)169 (34.1)0.98 (0.82 to 1.17)
 Vegetarians758 (23.4)246 (32.5)0.97 (0.84 to 1.14)
 Vegans88 (27.9)17 (19.3)0.67 (0.41 to 1.09)
P heterogeneity=0.45
Diabetes**
 Meat eaters707 (10.0)446 (63.1)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters75 (14.8)41 (54.7)0.78 (0.56 to 1.08)
 Vegetarians119 (10.6)84 (70.6)1.05 (0.81 to 1.35)
 Vegans7 (13.2)6 (85.7)1.07 (0.45 to 2.51)
P heterogeneity=0.46
Thyroid disease††
 Meat eaters1545 (13.2)1191 (77.1)1.00 (ref)
 Fish eaters380 (11.6)273 (71.8)0.95 (0.83 to 1.09)
 Vegetarians465 (11.2)337 (72.5)0.97 (0.85 to 1.10)
 Vegans56 (11.8)37 (66.1)0.88 (0.63 to 1.22)
P heterogeneity=0.78
  • *Refers to medication use for most of the past 4 weeks specific to the condition described among participants who reported diagnosis for the condition on the second (10-year) follow-up questionnaire.

  • †Number reporting the condition (mean years since reported diagnosis) and number (%) taking appropriate medication were as observed. Prevalence ratios were adjusted for the cross-classification of sex and age at follow-up (<40, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–69, 70–74, ≥75 years), region of residence (eight regions), self-reported current health (excellent, good, fair, poor, unknown), years since reported diagnosis (calculated as year of follow-up questionnaire completion minus reported year of diagnosis; <2, 2–3, 4–5, 6–9, ≥10 years, unknown), and number of self-reported illnesses or conditions (1, 2, 3, ≥4).

  • ‡Reported use of at least one of amlodipine, enalapril, frusemide, propranolol, atenolol, bendrofluazide, lisinopril and nifedipine.

  • §Reported use of at least one of atorvastatin and simvastatin.

  • ¶Reported use of at least one of beclomethasone and salbutamol.

  • **Reported use of at least one of insulin and metformin.

  • ††Reported use of thyroxine.