Table 4

Child development outcomes as reported across studies included in the systematic review

StudyMeasureAssessmentChild age in monthsInterventionControlCohen’s d Other statistics
nMeanSDnMeanSD
PIBehaviour
Barlow et al 59 Total problem score BITSEA*Q125533.5238.814935.5539.630.05 (−0.33; 0.44)
Competence BITSEAQ125314.063.654313.373.530.19 (−0.21; 0.60)
BRSO126238.375.715938.695.5−0.06 (−0.41; 0.30)
Høivik et al 45 Total score ASQ:SEQ~9–1037270.40 (−0.10; 0.90)β=−7.22, SD of DV=18.51†
Salomonsson and Sandell52 Total score ASQ:SE*Q~11381.000.72371.140.700.20 (−0.26; 0.65)Becker’s δ=0.25(adjusted for baseline ASQ:SE)
Sierau et al 55 Internalising CBCL*Q241679.515.951599.945.650.07 (−0.14; 0.29)
Externalising CBCL*Q2417215.937.5616415.347.230.08 (−0.13; 0.29)
BRSO2416053.1026.7414257.1327.79−0.15 (−0.37; 0.08)
Fergusson et al 57 Externalising ITSEA (short)Q~362071840.19 (−0.01; 0.39)Cohen’s d provided in paper
Internalising ITSEA (short)Q~36207184 0.26 (0.06; 0.47) Cohen’s d provided in paper
Total problem score ITSEA (50 items)Q~36207184 0.24 (0.04; 0.44) Cohen’s d provided in paper
Kaminski et al 36 DECA behavioural concernsQ3612678−0.12(−0.48; 0.25) ‡OR=0.81 (0.42; 1.56)
DECA socioemotional problemsQ3612779−0.04 (−0.49; 0.43)‡OR=0.93 (0.41; 2.17)
Kaminski et al 36 DECA behavioural concernsQ60121730.32 (−0.07; 0.7)‡OR=1.78 (0.88; 3.57)
DECA socioemotional problemsQ60122730.00 (−0.48; 0.49)‡OR=1.00 (0.42; 2.44)
SDQ conduct problemsQ60122730.18 (−0.14; 0.52)‡OR=1.39 (0.77; 2.56)
SDQ hyperactivity1 Q60121730.31 (−0.21; 0.84)‡OR=1.75 (0.69; 4.55)
SDQ peer problemsQ6012173−0.14(−0.52; 0.24) ‡OR=0.78 (0.39; 1.54)
Mendelsohn et al 48 Total problem score CBCL*Q335250.210.04753.29.70.30 (−0.09; 0.70)
Externalising CBCL*Q335250.09.84751.89.40.19 (−0.21; 0.58)
Internalising CBCL*Q335252.99.94753.89.30.09 (−0.30; 0.49)
Katz et al 46 BRSO1273510.83 (−0.43; 2.09)‡Normal/non-optimal: intervention—72/1; control—48/3; OR=4.5 (0.45; 44.55)
PICognitive development
Barlow et al 59 MDIO126293.7410.985993.0310.890.06 (−0.29; 0.42)
Katz et al 46 MDIO1273101.012.451101.417.3−0.03 (−0.39; 0.33)
Taylor et al 42 MDIO~155099.314.850100.414.3−0.08 (−0.47; 0.32)§
Sierau et al 55 MDIO2418087.3714.7416787.6414.74−0.02 (−0.23; 0.19)
Bridgeman et al 47 Intelligence Standford-BinetO3646104.2210.365296.6912.20 0.66 (0.25; 1.07) R=0.49 (including all independent variables)
Concept attainment CFIO363833.394.694328.027.01 0.89 (0.43; 1.35)
Perception Pacific test seriesO363232.095.294230.006.860.34 (−0.13; 0.80)
Mendelsohn et al 48 MDIO335286.17.54583.99.70.26 (−0.14; 0.66)
PIPsychomotor development
Katz et al 46 PDIO127395.113.65193.111.90.15 (−0.20; 0.51)
Taylor et al 42 PDIO~1550103.611.55010012.40.30 (−0.09; 0.70)§
Sierau et al 55 PDIO2418092.8615.0816792.8114.100.00 (−0.21; 0.21)
PICommunication/language
Bridgeman et al 47, 1981, New Orleans, LouisianaAmmonsO363413.443.383811.113.09 0.72 (0.24; 1.20)
Mendelsohn et al 48 PLS-3O335280.710.24581.110.6−0.04 (−0.44; 0.36)
Sierau et al 55 ELFRAO24169102.6464.69161107.8466.63−0.08 (−0.30; 0.14)
SETK-2O241410.780.581280.800.61−0.03 (−0.27; 0.21)
SFBehaviour
Høivik et al 201545 ASQ:SEQ~15–162627 1.05 (0.47; 1.62) β=−13.79, SD of DV=15.02†
MFBehaviour
Kaminski et al 36 DECA behavioural concernsQ48124780.26 (−0.14; 0.66)‡OR=1.61 (0.78; 333)
DECA socioemotional problemsQ48124780.00 (−0.55; 0.55)‡OR=1.00 (0.37; 2.70)
SDQ conduct problemsQ48124780.18 (−0.14; 0.51)‡OR=1.39 (0.77; 2.5)
SDQ hyperactivity1 Q4812478−0.37(−0.01; 0.26) ‡OR=0.51 (0.16; 1.61)
SDQ peer problemsQ4812478−0.12(−0.49; 0.26) ‡OR=0.81 (0.41; 1.61)
LFBehaviour
Fergusson et al 58 SDQ*Q~1081999.910.9117110.081.060.17 (−0.03; 0.38)
Kaminski et al 36 DECA behavioural concernsQ60116710.27 (−0.21; 0.72)‡OR=1.62 (0.69; 3.70)
DECA socioemotional problemsQ6011773 0.49 (0.05; 1.01)OR=2.44 (1.10; 6.25)
SDQ conduct problemsQ6011671−0.03(−0.39; 0.33) ‡OR=0.94 (0.49; 1.82)
SDQ hyperactivity1 Q60116710.17 (−0.37; 0.7)‡OR=1.35 (0.51; 3.57)
SDQ peer problemsQ60116710.17 (−0.24; 0.58) ‡OR=1.37 (0.65; 2.86)
Salomonsson et al 53 ASQ:SEQ54320.980.90320.880.680.13 (−0.37; 0.62)
SDQQparent 54328.175.54317.395.190.15 (−0.35; 0.64)
SDQQteacher 54245.714.32276.595.31−0.18 (−0.73; 0.37)
CGAS functioningQ543178.3912.83068.8714.74 0.69 (0.17; 1.21)
  • Significant effect sizes are marked with bold.

  • *Reverse scoring—high score is negative.

  • †Adjusted for ASQ baseline score.

  • ‡Calculation based on dichotomous outcome.

  • §No control group. Two interventions were compared.

  • ASQ:SE, Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional; BITSEA, Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment; BRS, Behavioural Rating Scale; CBCL, Child Behaviour Checklist; CFI, Concept Familiarity Index; CGAS, Children’s Global Assessment Scale; DECA, Devereux Early Childhood Assessment; DV, dependent variable; ELFRA, Elternfragebögen für die Früherkennung von Risikokindern; ITSEA, Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment; LF, long-term follow-up (>12 months postintervention); MDI, Mental Developmental Index; MF, mid-term follow-up (7–12 months); O, observation; PDI, Psychomotor Development Index; PI, postintervention; PLS-3, Preschool Language Scale; Q, questionnaire; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires; SETK-2, Sprachenentwicklungstest für zweijährige Kinder; SF, short-term follow-up (≤6 months postintervention); U, unadjusted.