Table 1

Baseline characteristic of studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyCountrySample sizeMean agePercentage male (%)BMIDisease statusAssessment
AHI or ODI categoriesFollow-up duration (year)Reported outcomesAdjusted factorsNOS score
Mooe et al 200021 Sweden40859.158.427.0CADLimited PSG<5; 5–10; 10–15; ≥155.1CHD, stroke, all-cause mortalityAge, sex, BMI, hypertension, DM, LVF and coronary intervention7
Gottlieb et al 201022 USA442262.443.528.2HealthyPSG<5; 5–15; 15–30; ≥308.7HFAge, race, BMI, smoking, DM, SBP, DBP, TC, HDL-C, lipid-lowering medications and antihypertensive medications8
Campos-Rodriguez et al 201223 Spain111656.10.036.6HealthyPSG<10; 10–29; ≥306.0Cardiac deathAge, BMI, DM, hypertension and previous CVD8
Marin et al 200524 Spain172949.910028.7HealthyPSG5–30; ≥3010.1Cardiac death and CHDAge, diagnostic group, presence of CVD, DM, hypertension, lipid disorders, smoking, alcohol, SBP DBP, blood glucose, TC, TG and use of antihypertensive, lipid-lowering and antidiabetic drugs9
Young et al 200825 USA152248.055.028.6HealthyPSG5–15; 15–30; ≥3018.0Cardiac death, all-cause mortality and CHDAge, age-squared, sex, BMI and
BMI squared
Redline et al 201026 USA542262.945.427.8HealthyPSGQuartile I (0–4.05); quartile II (4.05–9.50); quartile III (9.50–19.13); quartile IV (>19.13)8.7StrokeAge, BMI, race, smoking, SBP, DM and antihypertensive medications8
Arzt et al 200527 USA118947.055.030.0HealthyPSG<5; 5–20; ≥204.0StrokeAge, sex, and BMI7
Punjabi et al 200828 USA629462.547.027.8HealthyPSGQuartile I (0–8.50); quartile II (8.51–15.09); quartile III (15.10–24.28); quartile IV (>24.28)8.2CHD, all-cause mortalityAge, sex, race, BMI, SBP, DBP, smoking, prevalent hypertension, DM and CVD8
Shah et al 201029 USA143659.769.432.9HealthyPSG<5; 5–14; 15–29; ≥302.9CHD, cardiac deathAge, race, sex, smoking, alcohol, BMI, AF, DM, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia7
Yaggi et al 200530 USA102260.271.332.8HealthyPSG≤3; 4–12; 13–36; ≥363.4Stroke and all-cause mortalityAge, sex, race, smoking, alcohol, BMI, DM, hyperlipidaemia, AF and hypertension8
Martínez-García et al 200931 Spain16673.359.028.1Ischaemic strokePSG0–9; 10–19; ≥205.0All-cause mortalityAge, sex, Barthel index, AHI and CPAP treatment groups, previous stroke or TIA, diabetes, hypercholesterolaemia, BMI, smoking, arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, significant carotid stenosis and fibrinogen levels7
Munoz et al 200632 Spain103479.857.026.8HealthyPSG<30; ≥306.0StrokeSex7
Leão et al 201633 Portugal7362.475.027.6Acute coronary syndromePSG5–15; 15–30; ≥306.3CHDSex7
Fornadi et al 201434 Hungary10051.056.826.8Kidney transplant recipientsPSG5–15; 15–30; ≥306.3All-cause mortalityUnadjusted6
Kendzerska et al 201435 Canada10 14949.962.030.1HealthyPSG<5; 5–15; 15–30; ≥305.7All-cause mortalityTraditional CV risk factors7
Won et al 201336 USA28165.098.034.0Ischaemic heart disease and myocardial injuryPSG5–30; ≥304.1All-cause mortalityNA6
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; AHI, apnoea–hypopnea index; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CHD, coronary heart disease; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; CV, cardiovascular; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HF, heart failure; LVF, left ventricular function; NA, not applicable; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; ODI, oxygen desaturation index; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea; PSG, polysomnography; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride; TIA, transient ischaemic attack.