Table 3

Association between paternal SSRI use before conception and ASD in offspring born to fathers diagnosed with or without affective disorder

Paternal SSRI use before conceptionOffspring with ASD, nFollow-up number of person-yearsHR (95% CI)
CrudeModel 1*Model 2†
Fathers with affective disorder
 No use during the last 3 months prior to conception5830 908RefRefRef
 Use during the last 3 months prior to conception1466251.17 (0.65 to 2.09)1.10 (0.61 to 1.98)1.10 (0.61 to 1.98)
Subanalysis: paternal SSRI use during the last 1 year before conception
 No use during the last 1 year prior to conception5328 033RefRefRef
 Use only from the last 1 year to the last 3 months prior to conception840821.07 (0.51 to 2.25)1.08 (0.51 to 2.30)1.08 (0.51 to 2.30)
 Use only during the last 3 months prior to conception211640.91 (0.22 to 3.75)0.89 (0.21 to 3.75)0.89 (0.21 to 3.75)
 Use both before and during the last 3 months prior to conception942541.16 (0.57 to 2.35)1.10 (0.55 to 2.22)1.10 (0.55 to 2.22)
Fathers without affective disorder
 No use during the last 3 months prior to conception74156 752 899RefRefRef
 Use during the last 3 months prior to conception9036 3291.57 (1.27 to 1.93)1.52 (1.23 to 1.87)1.45 (1.18 to 1.79)
Subanalysis: paternal SSRI use during the last 1 year before conception
 No use during the last 1 year prior to conception73766 714 926RefRefRef
 Use only from the last 1 year to the last 3 months prior to conception6337 9731.69 (1.32 to 2.17)1.64 (1.28 to 2.11)1.57 (1.23 to 2.02)
 Use only during the last 3 months prior to conception1873541.26 (0.79 to 2.00)1.23 (0.77 to 1.95)1.19 (0.75 to 1.88)
 Use both before and during the last 3 months prior to conception4828 9741.45 (1.09 to 1.93)1.38 (1.04 to 1.84)1.32 (0.99 to 1.76)
  • *Adjusted for calendar year of birth, parity, mother age, father age, maternal smoking, mother psychiatric history, maternal AD use during pregnancy.

  • †Model 1 further adjusted for father psychiatric history.

  • AD, antidepressant drug; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; n, number; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.