Table 5

Reported effect size from meta-analyses in reviews

AuthorsInterventionType of effect size reportedReported effect sizeOverall finding
Buffart et al 11*YogaSMD (7 studies)
General QoL
0.37, 0.11 to 0.62+
Cramer et al 23*YogaSMD (4 studies)
Global QoL
0.62, 0.04 to 1.21+
Ferrer et al 19†‡ExerciseSMD (78 studies)
All intervention groups (immediate FU)0.34, 0.24 to 0.43+
Intervention versus control, adjusted for baseline differences0.24, 0.12 to 0.35+
Delayed FU
All intervention groups0.42, 0.23 to 0.61+
Intervention versus control adjusted for baseline0.20, –0.058 to 0.46+
Fong et al 10 Exercise2 studies3.4, 0.4 to 6.4+
9 studies22.1, 16.8 to 27.4+
Gerritsen and Vincent20 ExerciseSMD: intervention versus control5.55, 3.19 to 7.9+
Mishra et al 12*ExerciseSMD: baseline to after intervention (11 studies)0.48, 0.16 to 0.81+
Follow-up of 3–6 months
(181 participants)
0.14, –0.38 to 0.66
6-month follow-up
(115 participants)
(2 studies)
0.46, 0.09 to 0.84+
Zeng et al 26 ExerciseStandardised mean difference (overall)
(6 studies)
0.70, 0.21 to 1.19+
Cancer-specific
(10 studies)
0.38, 0.03 to 0.74+
Duijts et al 9 ExerciseSMD (or Hedges’ g for small sample size, with adjustment) (27 studies)0.298, 0.117 to 0.479, P=0.001+
Behavioural intervention0.045, –0.044 to 0.135, P=0.322Uncertain
Osborn et al 17 CBTSMD overall
(11 studies)
0.91, 0.38 to 1.44, P<0.01+
Short term (<8 weeks)1.45, 0.43 to 2.47+
Long term (>8 weeks)0.26, 0.06 to 0.46+
Individual CBT
(7 studies)
0.95, –0.367 to 1.536+
Individual versus group CBT
(1 study)
0.37, –0.02 to 0.75Uncertain
Patient education(1 study)−0.04, –0.38 to 0.29
Smits et al 21 Lifestyle interventionsSMD+
3 months1.16, –5.91 to 8.23
6 months2.48, –4.63 to 9.58
Zachariae and O’Toole22 Expressive writingHedges’s g0.09, –0.5 to 0.24+
  • *Reviews rated as high quality.

  • †Random effects assumption.

  • ‡Findings sustained for random or fixed effects, random effects reported.

  • CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; FU, follow up; QoL, quality of life; SMD, Standardised Mean Difference.