Table 5

Comparison of clinical, treatment, sputum and blood characteristics before and after an initiation/increased dose of ICS, according to the baseline eosinophilic phenotype

Eosinophilic asthmatics before an initiation/increased dose of ICS (N=79)Eosinophilic asthmatics after an initiation/increased dose of ICS (N=79)P valueNon-eosinophilic asthmatics before an initiation/increased dose of ICS (N=22)Non-eosinophilic asthmatics after an initiation/increased dose of ICS (N=22)P value
ACQ2.3±1.21.7±1.3<0.00011.4±1.01.8±1.30.038
Mini-AQLQ4.4±1.34.9±1.5<0.00015.2±1.35.0±1.50.26
Number of severe exacerbations in the previous year*0.8±0.3†0.1±0.1†0.0080.3 ± 0.1‡0.5 ± 0.2‡0.32
Prebronchodilator FEV1, % predicted76.6±17.481.8±17.80.00187.8±21.881.4±26.30.10
PC20M, mg/mL1.58 (0.26–3.20)§4.91 (0.93->16)§0.0011.92 (0.54–10.00)¶2.47 (0.89–10.21)¶0.53
ICS dose, beclomethasone equivalents400 (0–800)1000 (800–2000)400 (0–1000)1000 (800–2000)
LABA, n (%)40 (51)72 (91)<0.000111 (50)19 (86)0.0078
LTRA, n (%)16 (20)18 (23)0.815 (23)6 (27)1.0
Theophylline, n (%)0 (0)0 (0)1.03 (14)3 (14)1.0
Antihistamine, n (%)16 (20)17 (22)1.02 (9)2 (9)1.0
FENO, ppb62 (31–101)**27 (17–50)**<0.000123 (17–41)††20 (13–64)††0.50
Sputum total non-squamous cell count, × 106/g1.54 (0.73–3.62)1.43 (0.78–2.75)0.280.85 (0.43–3.20)1.96 (0.67–5.36)0.17
Sputum viability, %73 (54–84)66 (55–81)0.3469 (52–84)78 (55–85)0.53
Sputum squamous cells, %12 (5–24)16 (6–28)0.0917 (5–29)7 (2–20)0.73
Sputum eosinophils, × 103/g308 (113–992)89 (10–328)<0.00018 (0–18)10 (0–45)0.83
Sputum eosinophils, % of non-squamous cells24.6 (7.8–43.4)5.6 (0.8–20.4)<0.00010.7 (0.0–1.6)0.4 (0.2–3.8)0.31
Sputum neutrophils, × 103/g436 (176–1298)661 (292–1506)0.26507 (141–2227)1131 (262–5108)0.25
Sputum macrophages, × 103/g283 (98–1062)221 (95–588)0.16329 (101–774)338 (101–1088)0.51
Sputum lymphocytes, × 103/g25 (2–52)13 (2–38)0.0713 (5–38)16 (3–92)0.48
Sputum epithelial cells, × 103/g43 (15–173)33 (7–98)0.3640 (10–96)50 (8–135)0.43
Blood leucocytes, × 109/L7.67 (6.38–8.53)7.59 (6.35–8.83)0.637.58 (6.67–10.67)8.10 (6.62–9.83)0.34
Blood eosinophils, /µL312 (203–640)244 (141–455)<0.0001188 (131–258)132 (73–229)0.32
Blood neutrophils, /µL3914 (3133–4689)4044 (3403–5070)0.144646 (3518–5792)4944 (3824–5827)0.88
Blood monocytes, /µL513 (385–667)569 (414–721)0.10510 (346–724)538 (409–624)0.71
Blood lymphocytes, /µL2527 (2083–2926)2311 (1771–2900)0.0492542 (2077–3090)2440 (1756–2959)0.19
Blood basophils, /µL46 (23–63)38 (21–57)0.1040 (31–66)31 (22–50)0.039
CRP, mg/L1.7 (0.7–3.2)‡‡1.4 (0.8–3.2)‡‡0.613.8 (0.8–6.2)§§3.7 (0.7–8.4)§§0.88
Fibrinogen, g/L3.4 (2.8–3.7)¶¶3.3 (2.8–3.6)¶¶0.933.1 (2.8–3.7)***3.1 (2.7–3.4)***0.80
  • *Data are presented as mean ±SEM.

  • Data available for both visits in: †24,‡11, §19,¶ 8, **73,††18, ‡‡57,§§12, ¶¶54, and ***10 patients.

  • ACQ, Asthma Control Questionnaire; AQLQ, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire; CRP, C reactive protein; FENO, fractional exhaled nitric oxide; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; ICS, inhaled corticosteroid; LABA, long-acting β2 agonist; LTRA, leukotriene receptor antagonist; PC20M, provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1; ppb, parts per billion.