Table 1

State accommodation and food services employment models, IV

State accommodation and food services employment by employer size category,
b (SE)
<5 employees5–9 employees10–19 employees20–49 employees50–99 employees
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Percentage of state population covered by any smoke-free air law–0.1 (1.0)–0.9* (0.5)–0.2 (1.6)0.5 (4.8)–3.9 (2.8)
Prior year state accommodation and food services employment
(within employer size category)
0.8** (0.04)0.9** (0.01)0.9** (0.02)0.8** (0.1)0.95** (0.1)
State cigarette pack sales per capita2.0 (3.4)–0.1 (1.7)4.1 (4.9)7.6 (10.9)2.7 (5.9)
Real total cigarette excise tax
(federal plus state)
119.2 (123.5)135.2** (45.7)303.8 (157.9)1362.3** (459.1)558.1** (210.8)
State non-hospitality employment
(in units of 10 000)
4.0 (3.1)5.0** (1.0)15.1** (2.6)49.7* (20.9)2.5 (13.4)
Years included1990–20141990–20141990–20141990–20141990–2014
n (states)5151515151
n (state-year observations)7571157122412241171
  • State non-hospitality employment instrumented for by its lagged value. State fixed effects not shown.

  • *P<0.05; ** P<0.01.

  • IV, instrumental variable.