Table 1

Definitions of poor research reporting practices

Research reporting practiceDefinition
Guest authorshipAdding authors who did not contribute substantially to the work
Ghost authorshipOmitting authors who have contributed substantially to the work
PlagiarismCopying text or part of a text, an idea or an image from someone else, without properly referencing the source and using it as one’s own work
Redundant publicationRepublishing one’s own work including copying of an entire manuscript (duplicate publication), publication of parts of the results in separate papers (salami publication) and reusing of text in several publications (text recycling)
Non-disclosure of conflicts of interestNot declaring a financial or non-financial (personal, political, academic, religious, institutional) interest that can potentially influence professional judgement and bias conclusions