Table 2

Differences in FMD, CRP, adiponectin, TNF-α, IL-6, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 following nut consumption, compared with control

OutcomeAnalysis descriptionNumber of studiesNumber of strataNumber of participantsEffect estimateRange of estimatesInconsistency (I2)
FMD (%)All studies*896520.79% (0.35 to 1.23), P<0.001−0.40% (−1.72 to 0.92)–2.36% (−1.71 to 6.43)0%
CRP (mg/L)All studies25261578−0.01 mg/L (−0.06 to 0.03), P=0.59†−5.53 mg/L (−11.96 to 0.90)–0.60 mg/L (−2.44 to 3.64)20%
Imputed SD excluded‡19201244−0.01 mg/L (−0.06 to 0.04), P=0.71−5.53 mg/L (−11.96 to 0.90)–0.60 mg/L (−2.44 to 3.64)26%
Total adiponectin (μg/mL)All studies*775060.29 µg/mL (−0.63 to 1.21), P=0.53−9.80 µg/mL (−23.99 to 4.39)–10.60 µg/mL (6.39 to 14.81)79%
TNF-α (pg/mL)All studies*88482−0.05 pg/mL (−0.13 to 0.02), P=0.17−3.70 pg/mL (−6.93 to–0.47)–0.70 pg/mL (−0.41 to 1.81)2%
IL-6 (pg/mL)All studies1313906−0.02 pg/mL (−0.12 to 0.08), P=0.65,−1.55 pg/mL (−2.80 to –0.30)–0.46 pg/mL (−0.22 to 1.14)10%
Imputed SD excluded1111800−0.09 pg/mL (−0.23 to 0.05), P=0.19−0.50 pg/mL (−1.62 to 0.62)–0.46 pg/mL (−0.22 to 1.14)0%
ICAM-1 (ng/mL)All studies141510470.68 ng/mL (−0.53 to 1.89), P=0.27−80.63 ng/mL (−209.62 to 48.36)–16.76 ng/mL (1.44 to 32.08)0%
Imputed SD excluded131410110.68 ng/mL (−0.53 to 1.89), P=0.27−80.63 ng/mL (−209.62 to 48.36)–16.76 ng/mL (1.44 to 32.08)0%
VCAM-1 (ng/mL)All studies13148042.83 ng/mL (−8.85 to 14.51), P=0.63−99.72 ng/mL (−316.35 to 116.91)–62.00 ng/mL (−80.23 to 204.23)0%
Imputed SD excluded12137682.43 ng/mL (−9.29 to 14.15), P=0.68−99.72 ng/mL (−316.35 to 116.91)–46.34 ng/mL (−22.06 to 114.75)0%
  • *No studies reporting FMD, adiponectin or TNF-α, required imputation of SD.

  • †Sensitivity analyses indicated that exclusion of either of two studies15 52 resulted in an effect estimate of −0.22 (−0.40 to 0.04).

  • ‡Sensitivity analysis where studies with an imputed SD were excluded.

  • CRP, C-reactive protein; FMD, flow-mediated dilation; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1; IL-6, interleukin 6; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor alpha; VCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion protein 1.