Table 2

Descriptive statistics (unadjusted) for psychological distress measured by the Kessler-6 for each father group when their children were aged 4–5 years

OutcomesRefugee
(n=131)
Migrated from a non-English-speaking country
(n=872)
Migrated from an English-speaking country
(n=1005)
Born in Australia
(n=6129)
Psychological distress (continuous score), mean9.036.45.55.2
Psychological distress (cut points)
 Normal range (<7), n (%)57 (43.5%)554 (63.5%)739 (73.5%)4590 (74.9%)
 Symptomatic or clinical cut point (8+), n (%)74 (56.5%)318 (36.5%)266 (26.5%)1539 (25.1%)