Table 1

Characteristics of patients taking ACEI/ARB who initiate AA in UK primary care 2004–2014, by monitoring groups

PopulationMonitoring ≤2 weeksNo monitoring ≤2 weeks
Total number10 546 (100)3291 (100)7255 (100)
Female sex4348 (41.2)1326 (40.3)3022 (41.6)
Age (years)
 <50656 (6.2)138 (4.2)518 (7.1)
 50–591188 (11.3)314 (9.5)874 (12.1)
 60–64957 (9.1)275 (8.4)682 (9.4)
 65–691227 (11.6)391 (11.9)836 (11.5)
 70–741513 (14.4)502 (15.3)1011 (13.9)
 75–791708 (16.2)552 (16.8)1156 (15.9)
 ≥803297 (31.3)1119 (34.0)2178 (30.0)
Ethnicity
 White4687 (44.4)1476 (44.9)3211 (44.3)
 South Asian119 (1.1)33 (1.0)86 (1.2)
 Black101 (1.0)23 (0.7)78 (1.1)
 Mixed/other58 (0.6)11 (0.3)47 (0.7)
 Missing/not stated5581 (52.9)1748 (53.1)3833 (52.8)
Smoking
 Non-smoker2693 (25.5)835 (25.4)1858 (25.6)
 Current smoker1505 (14.3)405 (12.3)1100 (15.2)
 Ex-smoker6333 (60.1)2047 (62.2)4286 (59.1)
 Missing15 (0.1)*11 (0.2)
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight (<18.5)191 (1.8)69 (2.1)122 (1.7)
 Healthy weight (18.5–24.9)2613 (24.8)823 (25.0)1790 (24.7)
 Overweight (25–29.9)3335 (31.6)1020 (31.0)2315 (31.9)
 Obese (≥30)4407 (41.8)1379 (41.9)3028 (41.7)
  Missing***
Alcohol
 Non-drinker1268 (12.0)360 (10.9)908 (12.5)
 Current drinker7194 (68.2)2308 (70.1)4886 (67.4)
 Ex-drinker1451 (13.8)447 (13.6)1004 (13.8)
 Missing633 (6.0)176 (5.4)457 (6.3)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension7928 (75.2)2496 (75.8)5432 (74.9)
 IHD6042 (57.3)1919 (58.3)4123 (56.8)
 Heart failure6171 (58.5)1983 (60.3)4188 (57.7)
 Arrhythmia4495 (42.6)1493 (45.4)3002 (41.4)
 Diabetes3252 (30.8)1043 (31.7)2209 (30.5)
 Peripheral arterial disease946 (9.0)326 (9.9)6202 (8.6)
Medication use
 Calcium channel blocker5043 (47.8)1578 (48.0)3465 (47.8)
 Beta blocker6123 (58.1)1976 (60.0)4147 (57.2)
 Thiazide diuretic4354 (41.3)1384 (42.1)2970 (40.9)
 Loop diuretic7447 (70.6)2490 (75.7)4957 (68.3)
eGFR category (mL/min/1.73 m2)†
 ≥605803 (55.0)1665 (50.6)4138 (57.0)
 45–592668 (25.3)864 (26.3)1805 (24.9)
 30–441666 (15.8)591 (18.0)1075 (14.8)
 15–29409 (3.9)171 (5.2)237 (3.3)
Calendar time
 2004–20062374 (22.5)645 (19.6)1729 (23.8)
 2007–20093029 (28.7)943 (28.7)2086 (28.8)
 2010–20145143 (48.8)173 (51.8)3440 (47.4)
Biochemical parameters at baseline‡
  Creatinine (µmol/L) (mean (SD))99.1 (30.7)102.7 (33.4)97.4 (29.3)
  Potassium (mmol/L) (mean (SD))4.4 (0.7)4.4 (0.9)4.4 (0.6)
Potassium (mmol/L)
 <5.08955 (84.9)2779 (84.4)6176 (85.1)
 5.0–5.51136 (10.8)367 (11.2)769 (10.6)
 >5.5252 (2.4)78 (2.4)174 (2.4)
 Missing203 (1.9)67 (2.0)136 (1.9)
  • Data shown are column number (%), except where mean (SD) is indicated.

  • *Refers to negligible.

  • †Calculated from most recent creatinine measurement within 12 months before AA initiation.

  • ‡Baseline biochemical parameters were the values closest to AA initiation in the preceding year.

  • AA, aldosterone antagonist; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IHD, ischaemic heart disease.