Table 2

Frequency of optimality by planned place of birth

NulliparousMultiparous
Birth centre (reference)Hospital¶HomeBirth centre
(reference)
Hospital¶Home
n=939 (%)n=348 (%)n=399 (%)n=729 (%)n=353 (%)n=687 (%)
Time between rupture of membranes and birth  ≤24 hours861 (91.7)321 (92.2)367 (92.0)706 (96.8)345 (97.7)669 (97.4)
Duration first stage ≤12 hours927 (98.7)344 (98.9)394 (98.7)729 (100)353 (100)686 (99.9)
Duration second stage ≤120 min932 (99.3)346 (99.4)394 (98.7)728 (99.9)353 (100)687 (100)
Amniotic fluid is clear766 (81.6)286 (82.2)337 (84.5)607 (83.3)293 (83.0)597 (86.9)
No use of oxytocin for augmentation of labour470 (50.1)208 (59.8)**248 (62.2)***619 (84.9)314 (89.0)634 (92.3)***
No amniotomy496 (52.8)167 (48.0)204 (51.1)290 (39.8)132 (37.4)299 (43.5)
No injectable medication for pain relief during first or second stage of labour563 (60.0)215 (61.8)281 (70.4)***631 (86.6)302 (85.6)661 (96.2)***
No epidural analgesia for labour and/or birth670 (71.4)257 (73.9)320 (80.2)**685 (94.0)327 (92.6)677 (98.5)***
Birth occurred in the place originally planned at the onset of labour299 (31.8)140 (40.2)**182 (45.6)***477 (65.4)210 (59.5)581 (84.6)***
Fetal presentation at birth was cephalic938 (99.9)348 (100)399 (100)729 (100)352 (99.7)687 (100)
Occipital fetal presentation932 (99.3)345 (99.1)393 (98.5)728 (99.9)350 (99.2)682 (99.3)
No instrumental (vaginal) birth730 (77.7)279 (80.2)314 (78.7)709 (97.3)337 (95.5)674 (98.1)
Birth was vaginal, not caesarean864 (92.0)330 (94.8)377 (94.5)722 (99.0)347 (98.3)684 (99.6)
No episiotomy569 (60.6)191 (54.9)244 (61.2)645 (88.5)313 (88.7)634 (92.3)*
No first-degree or second-degree laceration of perineum or perineal tissue requiring sutures (including sulcus and cervical lacerations)158 (16.8)55 (15.8)59 (14.8)221 (30.3)111 (31.4)272 (39.6)***
No blood transfusion925 (98.5)343 (98.6)390 (97.7)725 (99.5)347 (98.3)682 (99.3)
No other serious intrapartum complications†939 (100)348 (100)399 (100)729 (100)353 (100)687 (100)
No referral during labour or within 2 hours post partum281 (29.9)127 (36.5)*167 (41.9)***497 (68.2)233 (66.0)558 (81.2)***
No urgent referral893 (95.1)332 (95.4)381 (95.5)709 (97.3)336 (95.2)668 (97.2)
No manual placental removal912 (97.1)341 (98.0)393 (98.5)718 (98.5)350 (99.2)681 (99.1)
Duration of gestation 37–42 weeks937 (99.8)348 (100)398 (99.7)729 (100)353 (100)683 (99.4)
Birth weight P10–P90+850 (90.5)317 (91.1)349 (87.5)664 (91.1)325 (92.1)608 (88.5)
Apgar Score at 5 min ≥9925 (98.5)342 (98.3)396 (99.2)726 (99.6)351 (99.4)687 (100)
No congenital anomalies932 (99.3)344 (98.9)397 (99.5)724 (99.3)350 (99.2)683 (99.4)
No birth trauma within 24 hours post partum‡939 (100)348 (100)398 (99.7)729 (100)352 (99.7)686 (99.9)
No serious maternal postpartum complications§939 (100)348 (100)399 (100)729 (100)353 (100)687 (100)
No third-degree or fourth-degree extension of either an episiotomy or a first-degree or second-degree laceration901 (96.0)345 (99.1)**381 (95.5)716 (98.2)346 (98.0)676 (98.4)
Loss of blood <1000 mL877 (93.4)322 (92.5)371 (93.0)706 (96.8)339 (96.0)666 (98.9)
No transfer to high-risk neonatal care setting within 24 hours post partum934 (99.5)346 (99.4)396 (99.2)725 (99.5)353 (100)687 (100)
No perinatal death within 24 hours post partum939 (100)347 (99.7)399 (100)729 (100)353 (100)687 (100)
No maternal mortality within 24 hours after birth939 (100)348 (100)399 (100)729 (100)353 (100)687 (100)
  • P values are obtained after adjustment for maternal age, maternal background, urbanisation and social economic status: *P<0.05; **P<0.01; ***P<0.001.

  • †This includes (pre-) eclampsia or Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes,and Low Platelet count (HELLP) syndrome present during intrapartum period, placental abruption, placenta preavia discovered during intrapartum period, infected uterus before birth and uterine rupture.

  • ‡This includes (eclampsia, deep venous thrombosis, pre-eclampsia or HELLP syndrome present during postpartum period,and pulmonary embolism post partum.

  • §This includes Erb’s palsy, clavicular fracture and cephalohaematoma.

  • ¶Community midwife led.