Table 5

Associations between patient characteristics and adverse biochemical values after AA initiation

OR (95% CI)
Hyperkalaemia*† (≥6 mmol/L)Creatinine*≥220 µmol/L≥30% increase in creatinine*
Female1.04 (0.70 to 1.54)0.34 (0.23 to 0.51)1.47 (1.25 to 1.73)
Age (years)
 <500.15 (0.02 to 1.08)0.96 (0.32 to 2.84)0.34 (0.21 to 0.55)
 50–590.29 (0.10 to 0.86)0.80 (0.32 to 2.84)0.45 (0.32 to 0.65)
 60–640.60 (0.28 to 1.31)1.17 (0.53 to 2.56)0.69 (0.49 to 0.96)
 65–690.83 (0.43 to 1.59)0.36 (0.16 to 0.83)0.64 (0.49 to 0.85)
 70–75RefRefRef
 76–790.75 (0.43 to 1.33)0.71 (0.42 to 1.20)0.94 (0.75 to 1.18)
 80+0.69 (0.40 to 1.19)0.50 (0.30 to 0.83)1.10 (0.87 to 1.39)
eGFR category (mL/min/1.73 m2)
 ≥60RefRefRef
 45–592.06 (1.26 to 3.35)2.80 (1.22 to 6.39)0.81 (0.66 to 0.99)
 30–442.32 (1.31 to 4.11)20.83 (9.73 to 44.58)0.82 (0.67 to 1.00)
 15–293.62 (1.60 to 8.22)248.0 (117.2 to 524.7)1.01 (0.72 to 1.40)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension1.27 (0.76 to 2.14)0.93 (0.61 to 1.41)1.18 (0.98 to 1.41)
 IHD0.67 (0.45 to 1.00)0.60 (0.43 to 0.85)0.95 (0.82 to 1.11)
 Heart failure0.77 (0.53 to 1.14)0.97 (0.67 to 1.41)1.12 (0.96 to 1.31)
 Arrhythmia1.00 (0.68 to 1.46)0.81 (0.57 to 1.15)1.11 (0.96 to 1.28)
  Diabetes1.21 (0.83 to 1.76)1.11 (0.80 to 1.55)1.18 (1.01 to 1.38)
  Peripheral arterial disease0.82 (0.44 to 1.51)1.04 (0.64 to 1.68)1.09 (0.85 to 1.40)
Calendar time
 2004–2006RefRefRef
 2007–20091.14 (0.65 to 2.01)1.36 (0.84 to 2.22)0.97 (0.80 to 1.18)
 2010–20141.08 (0.64 to 1.83)0.93 (0.58 to 1.51)0.95 (0.78 to 1.15)
Baseline potassium (mmol/L)
 <5.0Refn/an/a
 5.0–5.53.59 (2.43 to 5.32)
 >5.53.29 (1.57 to 6.88)
  • Only fully adjusted model is shown for clarity. Adjusted for age, gender, eGFR category, hypertension, heart failure, ischaemic heart disease, arrhythmias, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease, baseline potassium (hyperkalaemia model only) and calendar time. Further adjustment for lifestyle covariates made marginal difference to all results and is not included.

  • n=6520 except †missing data for 147 people for first follow-up potassium value.

  • *Adverse serum potassium and creatinine values on first blood test within 2 months of AA initiation.

  • AA, aldosterone antagonist; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; IHD, ischaemic heart disease.