At least one ANC visit−0.0502*** (0.002)−0.0326*** (0.002)−0.0237*** (0.002)
 At least four ANC visits and skilled ANC provider−0.0190*** (0.002)
 N512 424512 424512 424
Adjusted for confoundingNoYesYes
  • All regressions include PSU fixed effects.

  • SEs in parentheses are clustered at PSU level.

  • Control variables include: mother’s age, marital status and educational achievement, whether she heads the household, child’s sex and birth order and spacing, month of birth, whether it was a multiple birth and household wealth quintile.

  • ***, ** and *Significance at the 1%, 5% and 10% levels, respectively.

  • ANC, antenatal care.