Table 2

Final multivariable regression of the association and interaction between diet patterns in white and non-whites with birth weight (g)

VariablesModel 1Model 2
βP valueβP value
Prepregnancy weight (kg)5.5<0.0015.4<0.001
Maternal height (cm)8.4<0.0018.5<0.001
Parity (number of children)67.6<0.00166.0<0.001
Gestational age (weeks)158.4<0.001158.2<0.001
Smoking status−21.90.04−23.60.02
Infant sex (female=1)−118.6<0.001−118.8<0.001
Non-white ethnicity−33.50.04−28.10.08
Plant-based diet−34.6<0.001−67.6<0.001
Western diet−12.70.35nsns
Health-conscious diet6.00.56nsns
Plant-based diet × non-whiteNANA40.50.03
  • Model 1 included all covariates, non-White ethnicity indicator, three diet patterns identified using PCA: plant-based, Western and health-conscious diet. Model 2 tests interactions between non-white ethnicity and significant diet patterns after removal of non-significant variables from model 1 (n=3997). Non-significant variables removed from the model are denoted as ‘ns’. Smoking status was ordinal and input as either 0=never smoked, 1=quit smoking prepregnancy, 2=quit smoking during pregnancy or 3=currently smoking. Parity was ordinal and reported as having 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 (or more) children. Non-whites included individuals who self-reported as being of South Asian, East/South-East Asian or Aboriginal descent.

  • NA, not applicable; PCA, principal component analysis.