Table 3

Pathak-Wieten Stoicism Ideology Scale

ItemDomainOriginal item number*
1. I expect myself to hide my aches and pains from others.Stoic enduranceQ2
2. I don’t believe in talking about my personal problems.Stoic taciturnityQ3
3. I expect myself to manage my physical discomfort without complaining.Stoic enduranceQ5
4. I believe I should experience strong emotions. [reverse code]Stoic serenityQ8
5. When the time for my death comes, I believe I should accept it without fear.Stoic death indifferenceQ12
6. I expect myself to hide my strong emotions from others.Stoic taciturnityQ13
7. I would prefer to be unemotional.Stoic serenityQ14
8. I expect myself to manage my own problems without help from anyone.Stoic taciturnityQ15
9. I believe my physical pain is best handled by just keeping quiet about it.Stoic enduranceQ17
10. I would be very upset if I knew my death was coming soon. [reverse code]Stoic death indifferenceQ18
11. I expect myself to avoid feeling intense emotions.Stoic serenityQ20
12. I would not allow myself to be bothered by the fear of death.Stoic death indifferenceQ24
  • Authors were asked to rate Items on a 5-point scale: Disagree, Somewhat disagree, Not sure, Somewhat agree or Agree. See Methods section for scoring instructions.

  • *See online supplementary table 1: Technical Supplement.