Table 1

Patient characteristics of women with (imminent) obstetric haemorrhage who underwent peripartum hysterectomy and/or IR compared with all women who gave birth in Belgium during the study period

Risk factorCases of H and/or IR
(n=166) n, %
Background population*
(n=252 272) n, %
Unadjusted OR for H and/or IR (95% CI)
Maternal age ≥35 years72 (43.4)43 256 (17.1)3.7 (2.7 to 5.0)**
BMI at booking ≥30 kg/m212 (7.2)¶29 453 (11.6)0.7 (0.3 to 1.2)
Gestational age (weeks)Singletons ≥22 weeks
(n=144)
Singletons ≥22 weeks
(n=241 136)
 Extreme preterm (<28)8 (5.4)1221 (0.5)7.4 (5.3 to 10.5)**
 Very preterm(28-32 weeks)6 (4.0)1474 (0.6)
 Late preterm(32-37 weeks)37 (24.8)13 798 (5.7)
 Term (>37)93 (62.4)224 643 (93.1)Reference
Parity ≥330 (18.0)18 855 (7.4)2.7 (1.8 to 4.1)**
Multiplets (twin)13 (7.8)4690 (1.8)4.4 (2.5 to 7.9)**
Previous CD‡61 (36.7)¶27 007 (10.7)4.8 (3.5 to 6.6)**
TOLAC (≥22 weeks)14/57 (24.5)12 754/27 007 (47.2)0.3 (0.1 to 0.66)**
Delivery mode (≥22 weeks)
 CD§ compared with VD91/160 (56.8)¶54 369 (21.5)4.8 (3.5 to 6.5)**
 CD before onset of labour compared with CD after onset of labour66/91 (72.5)28 586/54 369 (52.5)2.3 (1.5 to 3.7)
 Assisted VD compared with spontaneous VD10/69 (14.4)23 100/198 444 (11.6)1.3 (0.6 to 2.5)
ART (IVF/ICSI)19 (11.4)¶9233 (3.7)3.4 (2.1 to 5.4)**
Birth weight ≥4000 g11 (6.6)19 967 (7.8)0.8 (0.4 to 1.5)
  • Reason for CD: bleeding (placenta praevia, AIP, abruptio placentae): n=15; placenta praevia/AIP not bleeding: n=29; maternal shock/cardiac arrest: n=1; Other: n=46.

  • *Data from the background population were retrieved from SPE reports (Flanders) and CEpiP reports (Brussels and Wallonia) from 2012 to 2013.

  • †Unadjusted ORs (with 95% CI) for peripartum hysterectomy and/or IR calculated for the different risk factors: the odds (=probability of peripartum hysterectomy and/or IR occurring divided by the probability of H/IR not occurring) in the women having the risk factor, divided by the odds in the women not having the risk factor.

  • ‡Women with CD as delivery mode: 17 with placenta praevia, 8 with AIP, and 23 with placenta praevia and AIP.

  • §Women with previous CD: 9 with placenta praevia, 9 with AIP, and 17 with placenta praevia and AIP.

  • ¶Missing data in cases of hysterectomy and/or IR: BMI (n=27), previous CD (n=1), mode of delivery (n=1), ART (n=2), haemorrhage in previous pregnancy (n=5), uterus myomatosus (n=5).

  • **p<0.05.

  • AIP, abnormally invasive placenta; ART, artificial reproductive technologies; BMI, body mass index; CD, caesarean delivery; CEpiP; Centre d’Epidémiologie Périnatale; H, hysterectomy; ICSI, intracytoplasmic sperm injection; IR, interventional radiology; IVF, in vitro fertilisation; SPE, Studiecentrum voor Perinatale Epidemiologie; TOLAC, trial of labour after caesarean delivery; VD, vaginal delivery.