Table 4

Assessment of the quality of included studies using the Effective Public Health Practice Project’s tool46

StudySelection bias*Study design†Confounders‡Blinding§Data collection methods¶Withdrawals and dropouts**Overall rating
Abrahams-Gessel et al 51 WeakModerateWeakWeakModerateWeakWeak
Da Silva et al 48 ModerateModerateModerateWeakWeakModerateWeak
Fatmah49 ModerateWeakWeakWeakModerateWeakWeak
Ku and Kegels53 WeakModerateNot reported (weak)WeakWeakStrongWeak
Nishtar et al 54 WeakModerateNot reported (weak)WeakWeakWeakWeak
Sangprasert47 ModerateModerateModerateWeakModerateWeakWeak
Seyed Emami et al 50 StrongWeakStrongWeakStrongModerateModerate
Sranacharoenpong and Hanning52 StrongStrongModerateWeakStrongStrongModerate
  • *Likeliness of the participants to be representing the target population.

  • †The likelihood of bias due to allocation process in the study design.

  • ‡Effect of variables associated with the intervention and causally related to the outcome of interest.

  • §Likeliness of protection against reporting bias.

  • ¶Reliability and validity of outcome measures.

  • **Assessment of the description of numbers and reasons for withdrawals and dropouts.