Table 3

Training content for CVD and its risk factors management for community health workers in low-income and middle-income countries

KnowledgeSkills
Abrahams-Gessel et al 51 Cardiovascular disease and its risk factorsBlood pressure measurement
Weight and height measurements and BMI calculation
Obtaining a 5-year CVD risk score using a ‘Risk Scoring Chart’
Da Silva et al 48 Hypertension and its treatment
Epidemiological data regarding hypertension to clarify its problem
Healthy lifestyle promotion
Treatment adherence and its importance
N/A
Fatmah49 Obesity risk factors and consequences
Balanced nutrition and salt restriction
Physical activity for the elderly
Hypertension and its risk factors
BMI meter tool measurements for nutritional status assessment
Ku and Kegels53 Diabetes diagnosis and management
Foot care
Diabetic diet and dietary counselling
Physical activity
Anthropometrical measurements (weight, height, waist and hip circumference), BMI and waist:hip ratio calculation and their interpretation
Blood pressure and blood glucose measurement
Psychosocial skill development (active listening, patient and family empowerment and social mobilisation)
Nishtar et al 54 Blood pressure measurement importance and desired frequency
Healthy life style and its role in preventing CVD and its complications
N/A
Sangprasert47 Health promotion and health education practices
Healthy dietary habits
Physical activity Relaxation skills
Blood pressure measurement
Weight, height and waist and hip circumference measurements
BMI calculation and its interpretation
Seyed Emami et al 50 Food and nutrition
Healthy eating and physical activity
Current challenges for physical activity
Overcoming barriers for a healthy lifestyle adoption
N/A
Sranacharoenpong and Hanning52 Healthy dietary habits and providing proper dietary recommendations Physical activity and motivating at-risk populationWeight, height and waist circumference measurements and their interpretation
  • BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease.