Table 1

Characteristics of community health workers and trainers

StudyType of health workers (country of study)CHWs (n)SexAgeEducationRelation to health systemTrainers
Abrahams Gessel 
et al 51
Community health worker (Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico and South Africa)6484% femalesNot reportedB: secondary to master’s degree,
G: secondary,
M: secondary,
SA: secondary
B: NGO employed
G: NGO employed
M: Government employed
SA: NGO employed
Health professionals: physicians, nurses, and nutritionists
Da Silva et al 48 Community health agents (Brazil)3790.9% females50% of CHWs were up to 40 yearsSecondary (67.3%)Government employedResearchers
Fatmah49 Cadres posbindu and community health centre staff (Indonesia)45100% femalesMean age 43.3Primary (26.7%), secondary (46.7%), diploma (26.7%)Government employedNot reported
Ku and Kegels53 Barangay health worker (Philippines)87Not reportedNot reportedPrimary (8%),
secondary (42%),
university (50%)
Government employedPrincipal investigators and trained nurses
Nishtar et al 54 Female health worker (Pakistan)299100% femalesNot reportedNot reportedGovernment employedHeartfile Officer
(project officer)
Sangprasert47 Healthcare volunteer (Thailand)7575% femalesMean age 49.5Primary (56.4%),
secondary (30.1%), diploma (9.7%),
university (3.8%)
VolunteersNot reported
Seyed Emami et al 50 Health volunteer (Iran)80100% femalesNot reportedPrimary (39.0%), secondary (48.1%), university (12.2%)VolunteersNot reported
Sranacharoenpong and Hanning52 Community healthcare worker (Thailand)3597% Females25–34 years (17%), 35–44 years (63%), 45–54 years (20%)Diploma (5.7%),
university (88.6%),
master’s (5.7%)
Government employedNot reported
  • B, Bangladesh; CHW, community health worker; G, Guatemala; M, Mexico; NGO, non-governmental organisation; SA, South Africa.