Table 3

Description of included studies

AuthorYearCountryStudy designSample sizeAge groupOutcome measureScreen studiedResults specific toIndependent variablesMeasure of associationQuality score
Carson and Kuzik38 2017CanadaCross-sectional14912–35 monthsChildren’s screen timeTelevision, videos, or DVDs on a television, computer, or portable deviceElectronic media (fixed and mobile screens)Parental and child demographicsUnstandardised beta coefficients and 95% CI8
Lee et al 32 2016MalaysiaCross-sectional8354–6 yearsChildren’s screen timeWatching television or video, or playing with computer, smartphones, or other electronic gadgetsElectronic media (fixed and mobile screens)Parental and child demographics, places for play, barriers and motivators for active playp Value from χ2 test7
Pempek and McDaniel33 2016USACross-sectional35812–48 monthsChildren and mother’s tablet useElectronic tabletsElectronic tabletsChild age, mother’s tablet use, income, education, personal well-being and ageStandardised coefficients7
Pyper et al 34 2016CanadaCross-sectional3206Under 18/screen time: 1–18Children’s screen timeTelevision, DVD player; computer or laptop; tablet or iPad; and video game consoleElectronic media (fixed and mobile screens)Different types of parental support behaviours (motivational, instrumental, regulatory and conditional), parental and child demographicsOR and 95% CI10
Sigmund et al 35 2016Czech RepublicCross-sectional1974–7 yearsChildren’s screen timeWatching TV (DVD, video) and PC (notebook, tablet, smartphone)Electronic media (fixed and mobile screens)Days of week, parental step count and screen timePearson’s correlations with 95% CIs8
Nikken and Schols30 2015NetherlandsCross-sectional8960–7 yearsMedia ownership and useTV, game consoles, computers and touch screensTouch screens (smartphones and electronic tablets)Parent and child characteristics (age, access, concerns about media use)Standardised coefficients6
Lauricella et al 31 2015USACross-sectional23000–8 yearsChildren’s screen timeTelevision, computers, smartphones and tabletsSmartphones and electronic tabletsParental media use, parental attitudes, child’s ageStandardised coefficients8
Connell et al 1 2015USACross-sectional23260–8 yearsParent-child co-use of mediaBooks, TV, computers, video games, tablets and smartphonesSmartphones
and electronic tablets
Parent’s time with child, parent’s media use, parental and child demographicsStandardised coefficients7
Kesten et al 29 2015UKCross-sectional7356–8 yearsChildren’s screen timeTV, computer, smartphone, game console and multi-SVSmartphonesParent’s employment, education, number and sex of children, screen-related limitsOR and 95% CI8
Jago et al 28 2015UKCross-sectional9545–6 yearsChildren’s screen timeTV, computer/laptop use including tabletsElectronic tabletsParenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit screen timeOR and 95% CI8
Asplund et al 27 2015USACross-sectional3140–5 yearsAdherence to AAP guidelines for screen timeTV, video games, computers, cellphones and other electronic devicesElectronic media (fixed and mobile screens)Child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment, parental attitudes towards TV viewingOR and 95% CI9
Wu et al 36 2014Hong KongCross-sectional2023–6 yearsUse of digital productsTelevision, digital tablets, smartphones, and so onElectronic media (fixed and mobile screens)Participants’ demographics, parenting approach (restrictive, instructive and co-using)p value from χ2 test8
Jago et al 37 2013UKCross-sectional7506–8 yearsChildren’s screen timeTV, game console, smartphone and multiscreen viewingSmartphonesParental media use, parental attitudes and access to media equipmentOR and 95% CI8
  • AAP, American Academy of Paediatrics; BMI, body mass index; SV, screen viewing.