Table 1

Specific characteristics and approach to study participants according to type

TypeBehavioural type 1 (BT1)Behavioural type 2 (BT2)
Characteristic of type
  • BT1 does not recognise his/her illness and seriousness of the health situation.

  • Eagerness for lifestyle change is low and considers it as a burden.

  • Has tendency to hold on to beliefs.

  • BT2 easily acts intuitively and emotionally.

  • Hope someone can improve his/her health condition.

  • Mostly prioritises other people than considering his/her health.

  • BT2 tends to talk about assumptions such as ‘I would like to improve if possible’, ‘I can do it if I want to do’, etc.

Specific approach for patients of each type
  • Make sure to provide accurate information, using blood test results and disease status. Also have him/her think about what he/she wants to do to improve his/her health.

  • Mention health risks that could occur in future that are realistic enough to occur in his/her daily life.

  • Provide encouragement such as ‘Achieve continuation of at least one effective behaviour to avoid failure in improving your clinical data’.

  • Provide encouragement such as ‘Your health is more important than taking care of others’ and ‘It is your job to protect your own health’.

  • Show him/her suitable size of meals (per meal or per day) with flip cards or food models. Advise preparing meals with attention to the ‘Model Menu’.

  • Encourage him/her to do ‘self-reflection’ as to whether behaviour is bad or good for him/her. This will enable him/her to continuously be aware of the problem.

  • Repeatedly ask ‘What is the goal you had wanted to achieve?’