Table 4

Demographic and biological correlates of mobile screen media use and direction of association

Variable typeVariablesSmartphonesTabletsTouch screensAny media device
AssociationStudyAssociationStudyAssociationStudyAssociationStudy
Child biological and demographic factorsChild age+ 31 + 31 33 0 30 + 27 34 36 38
− (co-use) 1 − (co-use) 1
Child sex (0=boy)0 1 0 1 0 30 + 32 38
BMI0 27
Family biological and demographic factorsParental age0 1 0 1 33 0 27
36
Parent’s sex (0=father)0 1 0 1 0 30
Family income0 33 + 30 0 32
+ 38
36
Parent’s occupation (0=unemployed) 36
Parent’s education0 1 0 1 33 0 30 0 32
Language0 27
Race/ethnicity+ (non-Hispanic) 1 + (Hispanic) 1 0 27
− (European-Canadian-Caucasian) 32
Country of birth0 32 38
Family structure factorsFamily size0 30
Number of children in the family+ 36
  • Touch screens include combined results for smartphones and tablets while any media includes combination of traditional media with at least one form of mobile screen media devices.

  • ‘+’ denotes positive association, ‘−’ denotes negative association, ‘0’ denotes no association (significant at 95% confidence level, p<0.05), empty cells denote association for that variable has not been studied.

  • BMI, body mass index.