Table 3

Characteristics of CM studies reporting no benefit, presented according to Chaudoir’s framework

Bodenmann et al 39
  • Most patients were not highest ED users (only five to six ED visits in 1 year)

  • Many patients were immigrants

  • Patients in the intervention group were of lower education

  • Multidisciplinary care plan

Lee and Davenport 8
  • No close collaboration with the PCP

  • Not aligned with prescription programme

  • No (or not enough) patient education activities

Peddie et al 42
  • Multidisciplinary care plan

  • Not a consistent use of care plan

Phillips et al 22
  • Staff turnover

  • Most participants had substance abuse or psychosocial issues without chronic conditions

  • Variation of the programme model during the project

Segal et al 40
  • Many patients were not very ill or had non-complex healthcare needs

  • Care plan by the case manager

  • Review of the care plan

Sledge et al 41
  • The CM intervention was not integrated into a systemic approach to care

  • Difficulty in finding a well-trained and experienced case managers

  • Multidisciplinary care plan

  • CM, case management; ED, emergency department; PCP, primary care provider.