Table 2

Psychological and fluency outcome measures* (mean and SD)

Time pointNIntervention (n=16)Control (n=15)Crude difference (95% CI‡)Overall effect† (95% CI)p Value†
SCID GAFBaseline3073.4 (6.5)69.9 (6.9)
5 weeks2577.1 (5.3)73.2 (4.8)3.89 (−0.38 to8.16)2.89 (−1.45 to 9.88)0.145§
4 months2582.4 (7.1)75.5 (9.3)6.88 (0.11 to 13.7)0.271¶
SPAIBaseline23110.0 (34.0)112.3 (37.4)
5 weeks22100.3 (32.5)94.2 (29.1)6.05 (−21.7 to 33.8)−11.87 (−29.34 to 5.60)0.183§
4 months2092.4 (31.9)97.9 (33.1)−5.53 (−36.2 to 25.1)0.008¶
STAIBaseline3037.5 (9.5)37.4 (12.7)
5 weeks2435.1 (9.4)33.4 (11.3)1.74 (−7.0 to 10.5)−4.60 (−10.99 to 1.79)0.159§
4 months2533.0 (7.7)39.0 (12.4)−6.00 (−14.4 to 2.4)0.002¶
Leibowitz AnxietyBaseline2937.1 (8.9)33.9 (14.7)
5 weeks2432.3 (7.4)33.2 (12.9)−0.89 (−9.5 to 7.7)−4.91 (−10.07 to 0.25)0.114§
4 months2531.0 (8.1)36.5 (14.1)−5.43 (−14.7 to 3.8)0.043¶
Leibowitz AvoidanceBaseline2931.4 (11.6)27.1 (18.6)
5 weeks2423.9 (8.5)29.1 (16.2)−5.19 (−15.7 to 5.3)−3.15 (3.61 to –10.23)0.384§
4 months2525.3 (11.3)27.0 (16.2)−1.78 (−13.2 to 9.6)0.846¶
UTBASBaseline29182.3 (49.1)169.9 (42.1)
5 weeks25169.5 (50.9)161.6 (33.6)7.93 (−28.9 to 44.8)−19.44 (−38.22 to –0.66)0.043§
4 months25155.4 (42.8)159.0 (31.8)−3.67 (−35.7 to 28.4)0.065¶
% Syllables StutteredBaseline319.4 (9.3)6.4 (5.01)
5 weeks248.4 (9.0)6.0 (5.3)2.40 (−4.2 to 9.0)−1.57 (−3.37 to 0.22)0.086§
4 months257.9 (9.3)6.2 (5.2)1.77 (−4.7 to 8.2)0.692¶
  • *Higher SCID GAF scores represent better functioning. For all other measures, lower scores represent better functioning. Measures are as follows: SCID GAF, DSM–IV Structured Clinical Interview, Global Assessment of Functioning; SPAI, Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory; STAI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory; UTBAS, Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs about Stuttering.

  • †Estimated from both follow-up time points (ie, 5 weeks and 4 months) using a GEE model.

  • ‡ 95% CI for the mean difference

  • Based on the specified GEE model: §test of any intervention effect, ¶test of a time-by-group effect.