Table 1

Impact of checklist introduction on mortality outcomes

StudyStudy numberStudy contextStudy descriptionPreintervention cohortPostintervention cohortMortality change after checklist introductionMorbidity change after checklist introduction
Jenkins et al2015 049 operationsSurgery for congenital heart disease
17 developing nations
Prospective cohort study
Complex prospective Intervention including checklist
Reference year*
2010 or 2011
Year 1
2011 or 2012
Year 2
2012 only
Mortality†
Year 1
OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.81)
Year 2
OR 0.76 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.83)
Infection†
Year 1
OR 0.65 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.73)
Year 2
OR 0.53 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.58)
O’Leary et al2128 772 operationsCommon paediatric surgery excluding neonatal surgery, cardiac and transplant
ON, Canada
Retrospective database (CIHI) analysis
Prior and posthospital mandate of checklist
Year prior to checklist adoption
September 2008 to October 2009
Year after all sites adopted checklist Sept 2010 to October 2011Only one death recorded in the entire study (prechecklist)Total complications†
OR 1.01 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.14)
Emergency visit†
OR 1.06 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.21)
Unplanned OR†
OR 0.88 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.39)
Urbach et al1115 495 operationsAll surgery
ON, Canada
Retrospective database (CIHI) analysis
Prior and posthospital mandate of checklist
3-month period of time 3 months prior to checklist adoption (site specific)3-month period of time 3 months after checklist adoption (site specific)Mortality†
OR 1.55 (95% CI 0.50 to 4.82)‡
Total complications†
OR 1.07 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.36)
RR length of stay†
1.01 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.04)
Readmission within 30 days†
OR 1.12 (95% CI 0.92 to 1.37)
  • *Enrolment was staggered; reference year was chosen as the first year prior to checklist introduction.

  • †Risk adjusted, reference population prechecklist cohort.

  • ‡Actual OR and CI obtained from study authors. If Entrolment was staggered, reference year was chosen as the first year prior to checklist introduction.

  • CIHI, Canadian Institute for Health Information, RR, relative risk.