Table 3

Simple effects of social and public health service spending on homicide rates in the USA, 2005–2009, for quartiles of individuals living in poverty from mixed effects models†‡

B (SE)
Quartile 1: 7.60%–10.40%
Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Utah, Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
−0.73 (0.13)**
Quartile 2: 10.41%–12.50%
Colorado, Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Maine, North Dakota, Nebraska, Nevada,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington
−0.75 (0.18)**
Quartile 3: 12.51%–14.72%
Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri
North Carolina, New York, Ohio, Oregon
−1.19 (0.26)**
Quartile 4: 14.73%–21.19%
Alabama, Arkansas, Washington DC, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi,
Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
West Virginia
−0.23 (0.21)
  • *p<0.01.

  • †Includes a repeated statement indicating measures come from states over multiple years; spending data and all covariates are from the years 2004 to 2008, while homicide rates are from 2005 to 2009 in order to reflect a 1-year lag between spending and homicide.

  • ‡Quartiles based on percentage of individuals living in poverty in 2008.