Table 1

Summary of studies included in the review

CountryYearMethod of assessing consultation lengthPerson measuring timeDesignMean duration (min)Consultations (n)Quality
Afghanistan42 2009INRUDUnclearCross-sectional3.3100Fair
Australia40 2000Self-recordedDoctorCross-sectional14.931 734Good
Australia40 2001Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.036 142Good
Australia40 2002Self-recordedDoctorSurvey14.935 861Good
Australia43 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional14.8926Fair
Australia40 2003Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.132 839Good
Australia40 2004Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.231 510Good
Australia40 2005Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.034 111Good
Australia40 2005Self-recordedDoctorSurvey14.933 758Good
Australia40 2006Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.135 201Good
Australia40 2008Self-recordedDoctorSurvey14.634 783Good
Australia40 2009Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.333 613Good
Australia40 2010Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.032 257Good
Australia40 2011Self-recordedDoctorSurvey15.233 096Good
Australia40 2012Self-recordedDoctorSurvey14.831 816Good
Australia40 2013Self-recordedDoctorSurvey14.831 816Good
Australia40 2014Self-recordedDoctorSurvey14.733 392Good
Austria5 2010UnclearUnclearUnclear5UnclearPoor
Bahrain44 2007UnclearUnclearUnclear7.5UnclearPoor
Bangladesh33 1994INRUDUnclearCross-sectional0.928 880Fair
Bangladesh33 1994INRUDUnclearCross-sectional11440Fair
Bangladesh33 1994INRUDUnclearCross-sectional0.81440Fair
Bangladesh45 1993INRUDResearcherCross-sectional1.0UnclearFair
Bangladesh46 2012INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.81496Fair
Bangladesh47 2015INRUDUnclearCross-sectional2.0600Fair
Belgium48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional15.0601Good
Belgium49 2005UnclearUnclearUnclear10–30UnclearPoor
Brazil50 2004INRUDUnclearCross-sectional8.33326Fair
Brazil51 1996INRUDResearcherCross-sectional5.8UnclearFair
Brazil52 2002INRUDUnclearCross-sectional5.51456Fair
Brazil53 2007INRUDUnclearCross-sectional7.13UnclearFair
Brazil54 2002INRUDUnclearCross-sectional6.13UnclearFair
Bulgaria55 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear20UnclearPoor
Cambodia56 2002INRUDUnclearCross-sectional4.4360Fair
Canada57 1968UnclearUnclearUnclear15.5UnclearPoor
Canada58 1969StopwatchDoctorCase series14.8683Fair
Canada59 1989AudioResearcherCross-sectional9133Fair
Canada59 1994CalculationResearcherCross-sectional15.8424Good
China32 2015StopwatchResearcherCross-sectional21135Good
Costa Rica60 1988INRUDUnclearCross-sectional4.75UnclearFair
Croatia61 2004Self-reportedDoctorCross-sectional11.55527Fair
Cyprus5 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear15UnclearPoor
Denmark5 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear10–15UnclearPoor
Egypt7 2014INRUDResearcherCross-sectional7.1300Fair
Eritrean62 1999INRUDUnclearCross-sectional4937Fair
Estonia63 2003VideoResearcherCross-sectional9405Good
Ethiopia64 2011INRUDUnclearCross-sectional5.47–6.50322Fair
Ethiopia65 1997INRUDUnclearCross-sectional5.8UnclearFair
Ethiopia66 2013INRUDUnclearCross-sectional5322Fair
El Salvdor19 2013UnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearUnclearPoor
Finland5 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear20UnclearPoor
Finland67 2013VideoResearcherCross-sectional17.920Good
France68 2002Self-reportedDoctorSurvey1644 000Fair
Germany48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional7.6889Good
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region69 1990UnclearUnclearUnclear2–3UnclearPoor
Hungary5 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear6UnclearPoor
Iceland5 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear15UnclearPoor
India70 1979StopwatchResearcherCross-sectional1.92115Fair
India11 2013StopwatchUnclearCross-sectional2.3412Poor
India71 2015UnclearResearcherSecondary analysis2UnclearPoor
India72 2005INRUDResearcherCross-sectional1.5UnclearFair
Indonesia45 1993UnclearResearcherCross-sectional3.020Fair
Indonesia73 1999INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.0UnclearFair
Iran74 2007INRUD/StopwatchResearcherCross-sectional6.9620Good
Iraq75 2013SMSResearcherCross-sectional6.3168Good
Israel76 2013Self-reportedDoctorSurvey7.677 247Good
Japan77 2003AudioResearcherCross-sectional8.4120Fair
Japan78 2010StopwatchResearcherCross-sectional6.12263Fair
Japan79 2012StopwatchResearcherCross-sectional10.2UnclearFair
Jordan80 2002INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.9629Fair
Jordan81 2004INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.071663Good
Kuwait82 2010INRUDResearcherCross-sectional2.850Fair
Latvia5 2008UnclearUnclearUnclear12UnclearPoor
Lithuania83 2008UnclearUnclearUnclear15UnclearPoor
Luxemburg5 2013UnclearUnclearUnclear15–20UnclearPoor
Malawi45 1993INRUDResearcherCross-sectional2.3UnclearFair
Malawi84 2007INRUDUnclearCross-sectional2.1727Fair
Malta85 2008UnclearUnclearUnclear14UnclearPoor
Nepal45 1993INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.5UnclearFair
Nepal86 2012INRUDUnclearCross-sectional2.02109Fair
The Netherlands87 1987VideoResearcherCross-sectional9.93422Good
The Netherlands87 2001VideoResearcherCross-sectional9.812111Good
The Netherlands48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional10.2579Good
New Zealand88 1976StopwatchResearcherCase series1216Poor
Nigeria45 1993UnclearResearcherCross-sectional6.3UnclearFair
Niger89 2001INRUDUnclearCross-sectional5.4–6.1UnclearFair
Norway90 1989Self-reportedDoctorSurvey15UnclearPoor
Norway91 2009Self-reportedDoctorCross-sectional18.3196Fair
Pakistan34 1996UnclearResearcherCross-sectional3996Fair
Pakistan92 1995INRUDUnclearCross-sectional4.0UnclearPoor
Pakistan10 2016INRUDResearcherCross-sectional1.79914Fair
Pakistan31 1997INRUDUnclearCross-sectional3.41639Fair
Peru93 2015UnclearUnclearUnclear15–20UnclearPoor
Poland94 2009StopwatchDoctorSurvey10.37924Good
Portugal95 2002StopwatchDoctorSurvey14.4274Good
Portugal96 2014StopwatchMedical studentCross-sectional15.2155Good
Qatar97 2007VideoResearcherCross-sectional6.55598Good
Romania98 2009VideoResearcherCross-sectional9.2405Good
Russia99 2014Self-reportedDoctorSurvey18.1528Poor
Russia99 2014Self-reportedDoctorSurvey17.2701Poor
Saudi Arabia100 1991Self-reportedDoctorSurvey5.7843Fair
Saudi Arabia101 2003INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.8UnclearFair
Saudi Arabia102 2012INRUDResearcherCross-sectional7.3300Fair
Saudi Arabia103 2015INRUDResearcherCross-sectional16.28200Fair
Saudi Arabia104 2015INRUDResearcherCross-sectional17.78200Fair
Saudi Arabia104 1997INRUDResearcherCross-sectional5.94400Fair
Serbia105 2002INRUDResearcherCross-sectional2.8–7UnclearFair
Serbia105 2002INRUDResearcherCross-sectional5.9100Fair
Serbia105 2002INRUDResearcherCross-sectional6.53100Fair
Serbia105 2002INRUDResearcherCross-sectional6.65100Fair
Singapore106 1994UnclearUnclearCross-sectional9.31667Poor
Slovakia5 2009UnclearUnclearUnclear4–5UnclearPoor
Slovenia107 2005StopwatchDoctorSurvey7.0812 296Fair
Slovenia108 2008StopwatchNurseProspective survey6.912 501Good
Spain109 1990UnclearUnclearUnclear2–5UnclearPoor
Spain48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional7.8539Good
Spain48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional7.8539Good
Spain5 2009SurveyUnclearCross-sectional13.4UnclearFair
Spain110 1997INRUDResearcherCross-sectional9.59600Fair
Spain95 1998INRUDResearcherCross-sectional9.44600Fair
Sudan111 2011INRUDResearcherCross-sectional6.3120Fair
Sweden112 1989StopwatchDoctorCross-sectional21160Fair
Sweden113 1992INRUDResearcherCross-sectional22.548Fair
Switzerland48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional15.6620Good
Switzerland5 2009DatabaseResearcherCross-sectional17UnclearPoor
Tanzania45 1993INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.0UnclearFair
Tanzania114 2006INRUDResearcherCross-sectional3.8UnclearFair
Turkey55 2007Self-reportedDoctorSurvey1178Poor
Turkey115 2008Self-reportedDoctorSurvey1178Poor
Turkey116 2014Self-reportedDoctorSurvey51227Poor
Turkey117 2007INRUDResearcherCross-sectional8.24UnclearFair
United Arab Emirates118 2004Self-reportedDoctorSurvey5.9925Fair
United Arab Emirates119 2007Self-reportedDoctorSurvey5.69UnclearPoor
United Arab Emirates120 2010INRUDResearcherSurvey10.7UnclearFair
UK121 1952Self reportedDoctorAudit5.0UnclearPoor
UK122 1952Self-reportedDoctorAudit7.2UnclearPoor
UK123 1959Self-reportedDoctorAudit8.3UnclearPoor
UK124 1964Self-reportedDoctorCross-sectional5.07UnclearPoor
UK125 1971Self-reportedDoctorCross-sectional5.2548Poor
UK126 1973UnclearUnclearCross-sectional5.0UnclearPoor
UK127 1983UnclearDoctorAudit8.1UnclearPoor
UK127 1983UnclearDoctorAudit5.3UnclearPoor
UK128 1984StopwatchDoctorCross-sectional7.5199Fair
UK129 1985Self-reportedDoctorSurvey8.25UnclearPoor
UK130 1989Self-reportedDoctorSurvey9.876Poor
UK48 2002VideoResearcherCross-sectional9.4446Good
UK131 2004StopwatchDoctorCross-sectional8.96294Fair
UK132 2006Self-reportedDoctorSurvey11.71317Poor
UK30 2007Calculated from recordResearcherCross-sectional8.6514 294 035Good
UK118 2014Calculated from recordResearcherCross-sectional9.2213 381 772Good
Uganda133 1996INRUDResearcherCross-sectional6765Fair
USA41 1993Self-reportedDoctorSurvey15.562053Good
USA41 1994Self-reportedDoctorSurvey16.773060Good
USA41 1995Self-reportedDoctorSurvey16.773060Good
USA41 1996Self-reportedDoctorSurvey14.945366Good
USA41 1997Self-reportedDoctorSurvey16.303859Good
USA41 1998Self-reportedDoctorSurvey17.512507Good
USA41 1999Self-reportedDoctorSurvey17.673901Good
USA134 1999AudioResearcherCross-sectional15.07989Good
USA41 2000Self-reportedDoctorSurvey16.203344Good
USA41 2001Self-reportedDoctorSurvey16,782884Good
USA135 2001AudioResearcherCross-sectional1160Good
USA136 2002StopwatchNurseCross-sectional9.2876Good
USA136 2002StopwatchNurseCross-sectional12.1979Good
USA136 2002StopwatchNurseCross-sectional9.52599Good
USA41 2002Self-reportedDoctorSurvey15.775738Good
USA77 2003AudioResearcherCross-sectional11.1420Fair
USA41 2003Self-reportedDoctorSurvey17.364769Good
USA41 2004Self-reportedDoctorSurvey17.614023Good
USA41 2005Self-reportedDoctorSurvey18.974483Good
USA41 2006Self-reportedDoctorSurvey19.916536Good
USA41 2007Self-reportedDoctorSurvey18.297017Good
USA41 2008Self-reportedDoctorSurvey19.777037Good
USA41 2009Self-reportedDoctorSurvey18.577989Good
USA41 2010Self-reportedDoctorSurvey19.36237Good
USA41 2011Self-reportedDoctorSurvey20.556530Good
USA41 2012Self-reportedDoctorSurvey21.0712 897Good
Zambia137 2009INRUDResearcherCross-sectional5.82354Fair
Zimbabwe138 2000INRUDResearcherCross-sectional5UnclearFair
Zimbabwe135 2002INRUDResearcherCross-sectional8.7UnclearFair