Table 1

Demographic, commuting behaviour, employment, physical activity and environmental characteristics of the study population

VariableMale (n=4473)Female (n=2423)Total (n=6896)
 Age (years)56.7±6.554.53±6.655.9±6.6
Ethnicity (%)
 White British81.878.280.5
 Other white5.36.55.7
 South Asian6.24.25.5
Black Caribbean1.33.92.2
 Black African1.82.11.9
 Mixed ethnicity0.60.80.7
 Other ethnicity2.73.83.1
Townsend Deprivation Index (quintiles) (%)
 1 (most deprived)
 5 (least deprived)25.527.126
Highest educational qualification (%)
 A levels/AS levels11.211.211.4
 GCSE/O levels20.52522.1
 CSEs or equivalent6.47.96.9
 NVQ or HND or HNC11.579.9
 Other professional qualifications5.326.25.6
Average household income (%)
 <£18 00012.220.515.1
 £18 000–30 99927.42827.6
 £31 000–£51 99930.929.330.4
 £52 000–£100 00023.818.622
 >£100 0005.73.54.9
 Poor self-rated health (%)9.999.6
 Job involves heavy lifting (%)
Job involves walking (%)
 Shift work7.75.97.1
Commuting behaviour
 Commute frequency (number of outward journeys/week)4.6±2.14.3±1.84.5±2.0
 Distance from home to work (miles)14.9±28.47.5±9.912.3±24.0
Commuting mode (%)
 Motorised travel83.275.380.4
 Motorised travel plus active travel12.317.514.1
 Active commuting4.57.25.4
 Non-work active travel40.440.240.3
Physical activity and sedentary time
 Daily sedentary time (hours)6.0±3.14.9±2.75.6±3.0
 Total weekly MVPA (min)263.9±446.4214.9±383.4246.6±425.9
 Total weekly MET*-min2373.3±3099.82014.7±2854.72245.5±3106.2
 Achieves PA guidelines† (%)54.353.854.1
Environmental characteristics
 Close to major road (%)88.28.1
 Population density (urban/fringe) (%)94.595.794.9
 Inverse distance to nearest road (1/m)0.05 (0.05, 0.05)0.05 (0.05, 0.05)0.05 (0.05, 0.05)
 Air pollution PM2.5–10 (μg/m3)6.5±0.96.5±0.96.5±0.9
 Traffic density (vehicles/day)1699.4±5663.61716.2±6057.01698.6±5663.6
  • *MET, metabolic equivalents (1 MET=1 kcal/kg/hour).

  • †PA guidelines, physical activity guidelines (150 min MVPA/week or 75 min vigorous activity/week).7

  • AS, Advanced Subsidiary; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; NVQ, National Vocational Qualification; HND, Higher National Diploma; HNC, Higher National Certificate; MVPA, moderate to vigorous physical activity; PM, particulate matter.