Table 3

Results of logistic regression modelling to identify potential social, employment and environmental correlates of active commuting

Model 1
Individual factors
Model 2
Employment factors
Model 3
Environmental factors
Male
OR (95% CI)
Female
OR (95% CI)
Male
OR (95% CI)
Female
OR (95% CI)
Male
OR (95% CI)
Female
OR (95% CI)
Social factors
 Age (years)1.0 (0.9 to 1.0)0.98 (0.95 to 1.00)0.98 (0.96 to 1.00)0.97 (0.94 to 0.99)1.01 (0.98 to 1.03)0.97 (0.95 to 0.99)
Townsend Deprivation Index quintile
 1 (ref)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 21.13 (0.58 to 2.22)2.09 (0.93 to 4.71)0.88 (0.42 to 1.84)2.76 (1.10 to 6.92)1.19 (0.60 to 2.37)1.99 (0.88 to 4.50)
 31.90 (1.03 to 3.49)3.00 (1.42 to 6.37)1.35 (0.69 to 2.64)2.54 (1.10 to 5.90)1.80 (0.96 to 3.37)2.69 (1.26 to 5.75)
 42.04 (1.12 to 3.71)3.25 (1.55 to 6.83)1.49 (0.77 to 2.88)2.60 (1.14 to 5.95)1.79 (0.96 to 3.34)2.92 (1.38 to 6.19)
 54.24 (2.41 to 7.44)3.34 (1.61 to 6.94)2.28 (1.23 to 4.21)3.07 (1.36 to 6.94)3.32 (1.84 to 6.01)3.08 (1.47 to 6.48)
Average household income (£)
 <£18 000 (ref)1.01.01.01.01.01.0
 £18 000–£30 9990.68 (0.44 to 1.04)0.72 (0.48 to 1.09)0.97 (0.59 to 1.59)1.25 (0.77 to 2.04)0.61 (0.39 to 0.97)0.76 (0.50 to 1.16)
 £31 000–£51 9990.69 (0.44 to 1.07)0.39 (0.24 to 0.62)1.23 (0.74 to 2.04)0.94 (0.53 to 1.65)0.65 (0.42 to 1.03)0.41 (0.25 to 0.67)
 £52 000–£100 0000.85 (0.53 to 1.37)0.35 (0.20 to 0.62)1.34 (0.77 to 2.33)0.88 (0.45 to 1.74)0.80 (0.49 to 1.32)0.37 (0.21 to 0.67)
 >£100 0001.10 (0.58 to 2.11)0.90 (0.40 to 2.01)1.27 (0.59 to 2.79)4.27 (1.47 to 12.40)0.90 (0.43 to 1.89)0.75 (0.30 to 1.87)
 Assessment centre0.97 (0.95 to 1.00)1.00 (0.98 to 1.03)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)1.02 (0.98 to 1.05)0.98 (0.95 to 1.00)1.00 (0.97 to 1.03)
 Poor health0.70 (0.41 to 1.18)0.83 (0.47 to 1.46)0.56 (0.31 to 1.00)1.04 (0.53 to 2.04)0.62 (0.35 to 1.11)0.89 (0.50 to 1.56)
Employment characteristics
Distance from home to work (miles)
 <1.5 (ref)1.01.0
 1.5–40.12 (0.08 to 0.17)0.07 (0.05 to 0.11)
 4–100.01 (0.01 to 0.03)0.01 (0.05 to 0.03)
 >100.002 (0.001 to 0.01)0.00
 Commute frequency0.95 (0.86 to 1.05)1.01 (0.91 to 1.14)
 Job involves walking0.97 (0.83 to 1.13)1.20 (1.00 to 1.43)
 Shift work0.85 (0.43 to 1.67)0.76 (0.31 to 1.88)
Environmental characteristics
 Population density (ref: urban)0.12 (0.02 to 0.90)0.39 (0.09 to 1.62)
 Air pollution (PM10 μg/m3)1.01 (0.84 to 1.21)0.89 (0.72 to 1.09)
 Traffic density (number of cars)1.0 (0.99 to 1.0)0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)
 Close to major road (ref: yes)1.48 (0.76 to 2.89)1.41 (0.64 to 3.09)
 Distance to nearest road (1/mile)0.15 (0.01 to 4.15)0.49 (0.02 to 9.67)
  • PM, particulate matter.