Table 1

Description of the studies’ characteristics

StudyDesignAge groupExclusion criteriaDecision aid (DA)
Mathieu et al 24 Randomised controlled study, pragmatic*38–45Personal history of breast cancer (BC)Web-based DA, information on possible screening outcomes and worksheet to help weigh up and clarify preferences. Intervention group: immediate access; control group: delayed access after completing the outcome measures.
Eden et al 25 Before-after study, clinical40–49Personal history of BC, prior breast biopsy, high risk of BC†, previous mammography within 1 year, non-English speakingWeb-based DA in three rural clinical settings, including BC information and questions for risk and self-preferences assessment.
Gummersbach et al 20 Randomised controlled study, primary care based48–49NoneMailed leaflet, more informative (especially on overdiagnosis) for the intervention group. The leaflet was not created in accordance with published criteria for evidence-based patient information, but it contained much more information relevant to decision making than the leaflet of the control group.
Hersch et al 11 Randomised controlled study, community based48–50Personal or strong family history of BC, BC risk higher than average, mammography in the past 2 years, non-English speakingMailed DA, outcomes assessed by phone interview. Evidence-based explanatory and quantitative information on overdiagnosis, BC mortality reduction, and false positives for the intervention group versus information on BC mortality reduction and false positives for the control group.
  • *The trial was advertised on the media. Women had free access to the site for eligibility assessment.

  • †Breast cancer risk based on the B-RST (Breast Cancer Genetics Referral Screening Tool).