Table 1

OHCITIES instrument: description of the variables included in each domain

Main domainsPlace of observationMain variablesItems included to describe the main variables
Availability and accessibilityOn-premises*Type of outletWe distinguished between bars or similar (including cafeterias, breweries or bodegas (typical old places in Spain where you can consume wine or beer that is produced by the owners)); restaurants (including also takeaway and fast food); pubs or cocktail bars; and nightclubs or discotheques.
Signs indicating the outlet’s opening timesWe registered if present or not. If they were present, we registered the hours of sales. We also indicated if the outlet was open or closed at the time the observers visited the premises.
Signs banning the sale of alcohol products to minorsWe registered if they were present or not.
Off-premises†Type of outletWe distinguished between supermarkets (including superstores and discounts); convenience or grocery stores; specialty stores (including greengrocers, butchers, fishmongers and bakeries); and wine or liquor stores.
Signs indicating the outlet’s opening timesWe registered if present or not. If they were present, we registered the hours of sales. We also indicated if the outlet was open or closed at the time the observers visited the premises.
Signs banning the sale of alcohol products to minorsWe registered if they were present or not.
Signs banning alcohol sales after 22:00We registered if they were present or not.
Public spaces‡Presence of street vendorsWe included information of people conducting activities on public spaces associated with the sales of alcohol. We included number, type of alcohol and alcohol brand they offered.
PromotionOn-premisesFurniture or structural element associated with alcohol productsWe registered if present or not and number of: labels and/or awnings, alcohol drink menu, alcohol boxes or barrels left by suppliers, showcases, barrels used as tables, wall menu support, blackboard. For each of the items we included information on type of alcohol and alcohol brand.
Promotional items on terracesWe registered if present or not and number of: canvas, tables, chairs, umbrellas, napkins holders, ashtrays. For each of the items we included information on type of alcohol and alcohol brand.
Advertisements§ and sponsorship¶ in showcases or visible windowsWe registered if present or not and number. We included if the promotion was associated to an alcohol brand, price and food, and if they included an alcohol image. We also included information on type of alcohol and alcohol brand if applicable.
Off-premisesFurniture or structural element associated with alcohol productsWe registered if present or not and number of: labels and/or awnings, showcases and alcohol drinks visible from outside. For each of the items we included information on type of alcohol and alcohol brand.
Advertisements and sponsorship in showcases or visible windowsWe registered if present or not and number. We included if the promotion was associated to an alcohol brand, price and food, and if they included an alcohol image. We also included information on type of alcohol and alcohol brand if applicable.
Public spacesPromotion on any supportWe distinguished between advertisement or sponsorship founded in different supports on public spaces. We registered the type of support that could be advertising billboards (standard and digital), bus shelters, kiosks, corporate vehicles or any other elements of the public realm. If sponsorship, we also registered the type of sponsored event. We included type of alcohol and alcohol brand promoted.
Presence of people promoting alcoholWe registered any people conducting activities on public spaces associated with the promotion of alcohol such as promoters offering alcohol discounts. We included type of alcohol and alcohol brand promoted.
Signs of alcohol consumptionPublic spacesPresence of bottles or similar; glasses or similar; people drinkingWe included number, type of alcohol and alcohol brand. For people drinking, we also included if they drink alone or in group.
  • *On-premises were defined as outlets where people consume alcohol.

  • †Off-premises were defined as outlets where people purchase alcohol.

  • ‡Public spaces included the sides of streets, public squares, playgrounds, parks, and any other open and green spaces.

  • §Advertising includes any form of communication, recommendation or commercial action, which can have direct or indirect effect on promoting an alcohol product or alcohol consumption.

  • ¶Sponsorship refers to any contribution, public or private, to an event, activity or individual, which can directly or indirectly affect in promoting an alcohol product or alcohol consumption.