Table 1

Background characteristics in intervention and comparison areas, based on various data sources

Intervention areaComparison areatp Value
Propensity score components
 Human Development Index: life expectancy (years)*61.2362.88−0.760.457
 Human Development Index: adult literacy (%)*51.4054.38−0.730.475
 Human Development Index: school enrolment (%)*2.772.88−0.330.742
 Human Development Index: gross domestic product purchasing power parity (PPP US$)*1293.61315.2−0.150.883
 Urban population (%)†16.7917.85−0.250.803
 District performance score (average)‡ (as a proxy for a district’s leadership ability and proactiveness in implementing new initiatives)74.2573.770.280.781
 Road density (km/km2)† (as a measure of access and ability to monitor the programme)0.2510.258−0.070.941
 Donor presence (average number)§
Population and health infrastructure characteristics¶
 Population4.9 million4.4 million
 Expected pregnancies (n)142 000128 000
 Number of hospitals1411
 Number of primary healthcare centres3939
 Number of health posts8789
 Number of subhealth posts435456
 Number of private health institutions4938
 Number of birthing centres203183
 Population per birthing centre24 15924 330
 Number of FCHVs69037378
 Population per FCHV710603
  • *UNDP. Nepal Human Development Report, Kathmandu, Nepal, 2004.

  • †District Profile of Nepal 2007/08: a socio-economic development database of Nepal, Intensive Study and Research Center of Nepal, Kathmandu, 2009.

  • ‡MOH. District Annual Performance Criteria, personal communication, Ghanashyam Pokharel, 2011.

  • §AIN. Health Mapping Report, Association of International NGOs in Nepal, Kathmandu, 2008.

  • ¶Health Management Information System database, made available on request by Management Division, 2010.

  • FCHV, female community health volunteer.