Table 2

Descriptive characteristics of the summed items scoring method studies cut-off point 1014

StudySample characteristicsSample size and % MDDPHQ-9 characteristicsDiagnostic standarda) COI declaration
b) Funding
c) Relationship with original developers
13. Gräfe et al 23 Country: Germany
Setting: psychosomatic walk-in clinics and family practices
Mean age: 41.9 (SD=13.8)
Female: 67.8%
n=528
Depressed: 29.2% psychosomatic patients; 6.16% medical patients
Administration: self-report
Language: German
Cut-offs: 10–14
DSM-IV
SCID
a) No COI declaration
b) Acknowledged funding from Pfizer
c) Not acknowledged
16. Kroenke et al 12 Country: USA
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 46 (SD=17)
Female: 66%
n=580
7.1% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 9–15
DSM-IV SCIDa) No COI declaration
b) Acknowledged funding from Pfizer
c) N/A
22. Navinés et al 28 Country: Spain
Setting: general hospital (patients with chronic HCV)
Mean age: 43.4 (SD=10.2)
Female: 28.6%
n=500
6.4% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Spanish
Cut-offs: 10
DSM–IV
SCID
a) All authors declared that they had no COI
b) Role of funding source declared
c) Not acknowledged
29. Thekkumpurath et al 26 Country: UK
Setting: hospital (cancer patients)
Mean age: 61
Female: 63%
n=782
6.3% MDD (of the whole sample)
Administration: not stated
Language: English
Cut-offs: 5–10
DSM-IV
SCID
a) COI declaration: ‘Supported by Cancer Research UK’
b) As in a)
c) Not acknowledged
33. Williams et al 49 Country: USA
Setting: secondary care (poststroke)
Mean age: unclear
Female: unclear
n=316
33.5% MDD
Administration: unclear
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
DSM-IV SCIDa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic institutions)
c) Not acknowledged
1. Adewuya et al 55 Country: Nigeria
Setting: community (students)
Mean age: 24.8 (15–40)
Female: 41.2%
n=512
2.5% MDD
Administration: Self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 8–12
DSM-IV MINIa) No COI declaration
b) No funding declaration
2. Arroll et al 42 Country: New Zealand
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 49 (17–99)
Female: 61%
n=2642
6.2% MDD
Administration: not stated
Language: English
Cut-offs: 8, 10, 12, 15
DSM-IV SCIDa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
3. Azah et al 62 Country: Malaysia
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 38.7 (18–79)
Female: 61.7%
n=180
16.6% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Malay
Cut-offs: 5–12
DSM-IV
CIDI
b) No COI declaration
c) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
4. Chagas et al 50 Country: Brazil
Setting: secondary care
Mean age: not stated
Female: 52.7%
n=84
25.5% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Brazilian
Cut-offs: 7–10
DSM-IV SCIDa) COI declaration ‘None declared’
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
6. de Lima Osorio et al 60 Country: Brazil
Setting: primary care
Mean age: unclear
Female: 100%
n=177
34% MDD
Administration: research assistants
Language: Brazilian Portuguese
Cut-offs: 10–15
DSM-IV SCIDa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic institutions)
7. Elderon et al 51 Country: USA
Setting: secondary care
Mean age: unclear
Female: 18%
n=1022
18.3% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
C-DISa) COI declaration—‘No disclosures’
b) Funding acknowledged (academic institutions and industry—AHA Pharmaceuticals Roundtable)—
‘The funding organisations had no role in the design or conduct of the study, collection, management, analysis or interpretation of data; or preparation, review or approval of the manuscript’.
8. Fann et al 30 Country: USA
Setting: trauma hospital (inpatients with traumatic brain injury)
Mean age: 42 (SD=17.9)
Female: 29.1%
n=135
16.3% MDD
Administration: telephone-administered
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
DSM-IV
SCID
a) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic institutions)
9. Fine et al 56 Country: USA
Setting: primary care (Ohio Army National Guard)
Mean age: 31 (17-60)
Female: 12%
n=498
21.5% MDD
Administration: telephone-administered
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10, 15
DSM-IV SCID-Ia) COI—last author disclosed financial and consulting interests (Pfizer not one of them). All other authors declared that they have no COI.
b) Funding acknowledged—DoD Medical Research. ‘The sponsor had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation of results, report writing or manuscript submission'.
10. Gelaye et al 31 Country: Ethiopia
Setting: general hospital
Mean age: 34.9 (SD=11.6)
Female: 63.1%
n=363
12.6% MDD
Administration: researcher-administered
Language: Amharic
Cut-offs: 9–11
DSM-IV
SCAN
a) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
11. Gilbody et al 57 Country: UK
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 42.5 (SD 13.6)
Female: 77%
n=96
37.5 MDD
Administration: not stated
Language: English
Cut-offs: 9–13
DSM-IV SCIDa) COI declaration—last author involved in the development of one of the instruments (CORE-OM), ‘but does not gain financially from its use.
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
12. Gjerdingen et al 48 Country: USA
Setting: community
Mean age: 29.3
Female: 100%
n=438
4.6% MDD
Administration: telephone or self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
DSM-IV
SCID
c) No COI declaration
d) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
14. Hyphantis et al 32 Country: Greece
Setting: hospital— rheumatology patients
Mean age: 54.2 (SD=13.5)
Female: 74%
n=213
32.4% MDD
Administration: researcher administered
Language: Greek
Cut-offs: 4–16
DSM-IV
MINI
a) No COI declaration
b) No funding acknowledgement
15. Khamseh et al 34 Country: Iran
Setting: outpatient diabetic clinic
Mean age: 56.1 (SD=9.6)
Female: 51.8%
n=185
43.2% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Persian
Cut-offs: 10, 13
DSM-IV SCIDa) COI declaration: the authors declared no competing interests.
d) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
19. Liu et al 63 Country: Taiwan
Setting: primary care
Mean age: not specified
Female: 60.9%
n=1532
3.3% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Chinese version
Cut-offs: 9–11
SCANa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
20. Lotrakul et al 46 Country: Thailand
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 45.0 (SD=14.30)
Female: 73.7%
n=279
6.8% MDD
Administration: self report
Language: Thai
Cut-offs: 7–15
DSM-IV
MINI
a) No COI declaration
d) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
23. Patel et al 61 Country: India
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 37.5 (18–83)
Female: 56.4%
n=299
4.3% MDD
Administration: face-to-face interview
Language: not specified
Cut-offs: 7–15
CIS-Ra) COI declaration—No declaration of Interest
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
24. Phelan et al 58 Country: USA
Setting: primary care (elderly)
Mean age: 78 (SD=7)
Female: 62%
n=71
12% MDD
Administration: research assistant
Language: English
Cut-offs: 8–12
DSM-IV SCIDa) COI declaration—no competing interests
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions). ‘The funder had no role in the study design, methods, data collection, analysis or interpretation of data, nor any role in the preparation of the manuscript or decision to submit the manuscript for publication'.
25. Rooney et al 52 Country: UK
Setting: secondary care (glioma)
Mean age: 54.2 (SD=12.3)
Female: 42.6%
n=129
13.5% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 8–11
DSM-IV SCIDa) COI declaration ‘The authors declare that they have no COI’.
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
26. Sherina et al Country: Malaysia
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 30.9 (18–81)
Female: 100%
n=146
21.2% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Malay
Cut-offs: 10
CIDIa) COI declaration ‘The authors declare that they have no competing interests’.
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
27. Sidebottom et al 59 Country: USA
Setting: community (prenatal)
Mean age: 23 (SD=5.5)
Female: 100%
n=745
3.6% MDD
Administration: interview
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
DSM-IV SCIDb) COI declaration ‘The authors declare that they have no financial COI’.
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
28. Stafford et al 37 Country: Australia
Setting: secondary care (cardiac procedures)
Mean age: 64.14 (38–91)
Female: 19.2%
n=193
18.1% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
DSM-IV MINIa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
30. Thombs et al 38 Country: USA
Setting: hospital (outpatients with coronary heart disease)
Mean age: 67 (SD=11)
Female: 18%
n=1024
22% MDD
Administration: not stated
Language: English
Cut-offs: 7–10
DSM
C-DIS
a) COI declaration ‘None disclosed’
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
32. Watnick et al 53 Country: USA
Setting: secondary care (dialysis)
Mean age: 63 (SD=15)
Female: 32.3%
n=62
19% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: English
Cut-offs: 10
DSM-IV SCIDa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
34. Wittkampf et al 64 Country: The Netherlands
Setting: primary care
Mean age: 49.8
Female: 66.7%
n=664
12.3% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: not specified
Cut-offs: 10 and 15
DSM-IV SCIDIa) No COI declaration
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
35. Zhang et al 54 Country: Hong Kong
Setting: secondary care (diabetic outpatients)
Mean age: 55.1 (SD=9.5)
Female: 40.8%
n=99
23.2% MDD
Administration: self-report
Language: Chinese version
Cut-offs: 15
DSM-IV MINIa) COI declaration—last author acknowledged financial COI. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
36. Zuithoff et al 47 Country: The Netherlands
Setting: primary care
Age (years): male=51 (SD=16.7)
Female: 63%
n=1338
Depressed: 13%
Administration: self-report
Language: Dutch
DSM-IV
CIDI
a) COI declaration ’The authors declare that they have no competing interests'.
b) Funding acknowledged (academic/health research institutions)
  • COI, conflict of interest; DSM, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; MDD, major depressive disorder; N/A, not available; SCID, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders.