StudyReference test:Reference test:Reference test:Reference test:Reference test:Flow/timing:Flow/timing:Flow/timing:Flow/timing:
Reference test correctly classifies target conditionReference test interpreted blind to PHQ-9If translated, appropriate translationIf translated, psychometric properties reportedOverall risk of biasInterval of 2 weeks or lessAll participants receive same reference testAll participants included in analysis?Overall risk of bias
Allegiant studies
Diez-Quevedo et al 22 ?UnclearLow
Gräfe et al 23 ?N/AN/AUnclearLow
Lowe et al 24 N/AN/ALowLow
Muramatsu et al 27 Low?Unclear
Navines et al 28 ??UnclearLow
Spitzer et al 25 N/AN/ALowHigh
Thekkumpurath et al 26 N/AN/ALow?High
Non-allegiant studies
Arroll et al 42 N/AN/ALowLow
Ayalon et al 43 ??Unclear?Unclear
Eack et al 29 ?N/AN/AUnclear??Unclear
Fann et al 30 ?N/AN/AUnclearHigh
Gelaye et al 31 LowHigh
Gjerdingen et al 48 ?N/AN/AUnclearHigh
Henkel et al 44 ?N/AN/AUnclearHigh
Hyphantis et al 32 ??UnclearHigh
Inagaki et al 33 ?UnclearHigh
Khamseh et al 34 ?Unclear?Unclear
Lamers et al 45 ??Unclear?High
Lotrakul et al 46 Low?High
Persoons et al 35 ??UnclearLow
Picardi et al 36 ?UnclearHigh
Stafford et al 37 N/AN/ALowHigh
Thombs et al 38 ?N/AN/AUnclearLow
Thompson et al 39 ?N/AN/AUnclearHigh
Turner et al 40 ?N/AN/AUnclear?High
van Steenbergen-Wijenburg et al 41 ??HighHigh
Zuithoff et al47 ??Unclear?Unclear
  • ✓, criterion met; ✗, criterion not met; ?, insufficient information to code whether criterion met; N/A, not applicable; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9.