Table 3

Quality assessment of included studies in the algorithm meta-analysis13

StudyPatient selection:Patient selection:Patient selection:Patient selection:Index test:Index test:Index test:Index test:
Consecutive or random sampleAvoid case-control/avoid artificially inflated base rateAvoided inappropriate exclusionsOverall risk of biasPHQ-9 interpreted blind to reference testIf translated, appropriate translationIf translated, psychometric properties reportedOverall risk of bias
Allegiant studies
Diez-Quevedo et al 22 High?Unclear
Gräfe et al 23 Low?Unclear
Lowe et al 24 HighLow
Muramatsu et al 27 ??Unclear?Unclear
Navines et al 28 Low?Unclear
Spitzer et al 25 HighN/AN/ALow
Thekkumpurath et al 26 HighN/AN/ALow
Non-allegiant studies
Arroll et al 42 LowN/AN/ALow
Ayalon et al 43 ?Unclear??Unclear
Eack et al 29 ??Unclear?N/AN/AUnclear
Fann et al 30 HighN/AN/ALow
Gelaye et al 31 ??High?Unclear
Gjerdingen et al 48 Low?N/AN/AUnclear
Henkel et al 44 Low?N/AN/AUnclear
Hyphantis et al 32 High??Unclear
Inagaki et al 33 High??Unclear
Khamseh et al 34 ?Unclear?Unclear
Lamers et al 45 High??Unclear
Lotrakul et al 46 ?High?Unclear
Persoons et al 35 LowN/ALow
Picardi et al 36 Low??Unclear
Stafford et al 37 LowN/AN/ALow
Thombs et al 38 ?Unclear?N/AN/AUnclear
Thomspon et al 39 ?Unclear?N/AN/AUnclear
Turner et al 40 LowN/AN/ALow
van Steenbergen-Wijenburg et al 41 ?Unclear???Unclear
Zuithoff et al 47 Low?Unclear