Study Reference test: Reference test: Reference test: Reference test: Reference test: Flow / timing: Flow / timing: Flow / timing: Flow / timing:
Reference test correctly classifies target condition Reference test interpreted blind to PHQ-9 If translated, appropriate translation If translated, psychometric properties reported Overall risk of bias Interval of 2 weeks or less All participants receive same reference test All participants included in analysis? Overall risk of bias
Allegiant studies
13. Gräfe et al 23 ?N/AN/AUnclearLow
16. Kroenke et al 12 N/AN/ALowLow
22. Navinés et al 28 ??UnclearLow
29. Thekkumpurath et al 26 N/AN/ALow?Unclear
33. Williams et al 49 ?N/AN/AUnclear?Unclear
Non-allegiant studies
1. Adewuya et al 55 N/AN/ALowLow
2. Arroll et al 42 N/AN/ALow?Unclear
3. Azah et al 62 Low×High
4. Chagas et al 50 ??Unclear×High
6. de Lima Osorio et al 60 ?N/AN/AUnclear?Unclear
7. Elderon et al 51 N/AN/ALowLow
8. Fann et al 30 ?N/AN/AUnclear×High
9. Fine et al 56 ?N/AN/AUnclear?Unclear
10. Gelaye et al 31 Low×High
11. Gilbody et al 57 N/AN/ALow?Unclear
12. Gjerdingen et al 48 ?N/AN/AUnclear×High
14. Hyphantis et al 32 ??Unclear×High
15. Khamseh et al 34 ?Unclear?Unclear
19. Liu et al 63 Low?Unclear
20. Lotrakul et al 46 Low?×High
23. Patel et al 61 ?Unclear?×High
24. Phelan et al 58 N/AN/ALowLow
25. Rooney et al 52 ?N/AN/AUnclear?×High
26. Sherina et al LowLow
27. Sidebottom et al 59 N/AN/ALow×High
28. Stafford et al 37 N/AN/ALow×High
30. Thombs et al 38 ?N/AN/AUnclearLow
32. Watnick et al 53 N/AN/ALowLow
34. Wittkampf et al 64 N/AN/ALow?×High
35. Zhang et al 54 ?Unclear××High
36. Zuithoff et al 47 ??Unclear?Unclear
  • N/A, not applicable; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9.✓,criterion met;  ✗, criterion not met; ? ,insufficient information to code whether criterion met.