Table 1

Exposure and outcome measures at each data collection time point

Variable groupMeasuresSource of measures
AIPV exposureEver physical, sexual, emotional
Past year, postrape
WHO multi-country study instrument61 (tested in South Africa by Jewkes et al)62
BRape circumstances and physical trauma/injuriesRape circumstances: number of perpetrators, relationship to perpetrator, weapon use, degree of violence, type of rape
Intimidation by the perpetrator or friends
Jewkes et al 63
(Questions to be asked after criminal case have been closed)
CRape stigma and social supportRape stigma and self-blame
Coping mechanisms
Rape disclosure
Social support
Social disruption: leaving home, school, relationship
Social Support Appraisal Scale64; Brief COPE65;
South African Stigma Scale66
DDemographic factorsDemographic factors: age, income, education, employment, relationship status, sexual orientationJewkes et al 62
EMental health outcomesDepression
Anxiety disorders
Other anxiety disorders
Alcohol and drug abuse
Cortisol level in hair
Epigenetic changes
Telomere length
MINI for psychosis and anxiety disorders49; CES-D (depression)67; AUDIT (alcohol)68; DUDIT (drugs)68–70; Life Events Checklist71; Davidson Trauma Scale (PTSD)72 73
Cortisol in hair and epigenetics analysis from blood samples
FOther traumaPrevious trauma: child abuse, other interpersonal violence or traumatic life events
Follow-up interview: rape, interpersonal violence or traumatic life events since the last interview
Childhood trauma scale Bernstein et al 74 modified for South Africa Jewkes et al 75
Life Events Checklist; rape and forced sex measures from Jewkes et al 62
GCriminal justice processes and circumstances of the rapeCase progression: case dropped, arrest, bail, guilty plea, case withdrawn, trial commenced, testimony in court given, trial outcome
Perceived satisfaction with the system including information given about whereabouts of accused
Jewkes et al 63; satisfaction questions to be developed
(These questions will be asked once criminal case have been closed.)
HAcquiescence to male domination of sexAttitudes to gender relations and perceived social norms
Consistent condom use
Relationship control scale
Sexual frequency
Jewkes et al 62; attitudes developed in South Africa and validated in Jewkes et al 76
IOwn sexual risk behaviourTransactional sex
Partner numbers ever and past year
Jewkes et al 62  75
JPartner riskinessSTIs of current partner
Use of IPV by current partner
Partners’ concurrency/polygamy
Jewkes et al 62 4
KBiological risk enhancers or co-factorsHormonal contraception use at baseline and ongoing
Pregnancy loss (since last interview): termination, miscarriage
Questions from the Demographic and Health Survey77
LCardio-metabolic risk assessmentScreening questions for risk assessment
Measurements: hip and waist, BP, BMI, glucose status (glycaemia/Hba1c) and lipid panels
CRP ultrasensitive (cardiac), Gamma-GT, ALT (SGPT), AST (SGOT), creatinine (serum),
Questions from the WHO STEPs questionnaire78
MHealthcare seeking practices postrape health, HIV testing and adherenceCompletion of PEP and STI treatment
Emergency contraception
HIV testing postrape and previously
HIV disclosure
Attendance for health assessment
Commencement of ART and adherence
Experience of HIV-related ill-health
Satisfaction with healthcare provision
Items developed and tested in pilot
OReproductive and child healthContraception, fertility, pregnancies, reproductive health
Child health including babies born during RICE study participation
Questions developed and adapted from Demographic and Health Survey
  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; ART, antiretroviral therapy; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; AUDIT, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test; BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CRP, C-reactive protein; DUDIT, Drug Use Disorders Identification Test; IPV, intimate partner violence; MINI, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; PEP, postexposure prophylaxis; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; RICE, Rape Impact Cohort Evaluation; SGOT, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; SGPT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase; STI, sexually transmitted infection.