Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

First authorYear of study publicationCountriesNumber of hospitalsNumber of patients includedBiomarkers assessedMultivariate*
AUROC†
Ingebrigtsen58 1995Norway150S-100β✗/✗
Waterloo59 1997Norway17S-100β✗/✗
Ingebrigtsen60 1999Norway150S-100β✗/✗
Ingebrigtsen61 2000Norway, Sweden and Denmark3182S-100β✗/✗
Herrmann62 2001Germany169S-100β, NSE✓/✓
De Kruijk63 2002Netherlands1107S-100β, NSE✓/✗
Townend64 2002UK4148S-100β✓/✓
de Kruijk65 2003The Netherlands1111S-100β, NSE✓/✗
Savola66 2003Finland1199S-100β✓/✓
Stranjalis67 2004Greece1100S-100β✓/✓
de Boussard68 2005Sweden3122S-100β✗/✗
Stålnacke69 2005Sweden188S-100β, NSE✓/✗
Stapert70 2005The Netherlands150S-100β✗/✗
Bazarian71 2006 (BI)USA135S-100β, C-tau✗/✓
Bazarian72 2006 (RNN)USA196S-100β✗/✓
Bulut73 2006Turkey160C-tau✗/✗
Naeimi74 2006Austria145S-100β, NSE✗/✗
Sojka75 2006Sweden198S-100β, NSE✓/✗
Jakola76 2007Norway389S-100β✓/✗
Stålnacke77 2007Sweden169S-100β, NSE✓/✗
Lima78 2008Brazil150S-100β✗/✗
Ma79 2008USA150C-tau✗/✗
Schütze80 2008Germany174S-100β, NSE✓/✗
Müller81 2009Norway193S-100β✓/✗
Kleinert82 2010Germany173S-100β✗/✗
Meric83 2010Turkey180NSE✗/✓
Topolovec-Vranic84 2011Canada1141S-100β, NSE✓/✓
Metting85 2012The Netherlands194S-100β, GFAP✓/✗
Okonkwo86 2013USA3215GFAP✓/✓
Abbasi87 2014Iran2109S-100β✗/✗
Diaz-Arrastia88 2014USA3206GFAP, UCHL-1✗/✓
Ryb89 2014USA1150S-100β✓/✓
Heidari90 2015Iran1176S-100β✓/✗
Dey91 2016India120S-100β, UCHL-1✗/✗
Korley28 2016USA2311C-tau, GFAP, UCHL-1✓/✓
Yang92 2016China176miR-93, miR-191, miR-499✗/✗
  • *The association between protein biomarker(s) and outcome(s) was assessed using a multivariate regression model.

  • †The prognostic value of protein biomarker(s) was assessed using an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC).

  • BI, brain injury; C-tau, cleaved tau; GFAP, glial fibrillar acidic protein; miR, microRNA; NSE, neuron-specific enolase; RNN, restorative neurology and neuroscience; UCHL-1, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1.