Table 3

Age-standardised prevalence of ERMs by subgroups of interest

CMRPMFAny ERMReferences
Studies
(n)
Prevalence
(%, 95% CI)
I2 (%)Studies
(n)
Prevalence
(%, 95% CI)
I2 (%)Studies
(n)
Prevalence
(%, 95% CI)
I2 (%)
Race/ethnicity
  Caucasian48.9 (4.6 to 13.2)99.442.0 (1.4 to 2.7)88.8411.0 (5.9 to 16.1)99.5 2 6 7 10
  Asian86.5 (4.6 to 8.5)98.283.6 (2.2 to 4.9)98.7810.5 (7.2 to 13.8)99.1 3–5 8–10 19 20
WHO regions
  The Americas314.3 (3.6 to 25.0)99.832.4 (1.6 to 3.2)91.6314.4 (5.6 to 23.2)99.7 2 10 11
  Western Pacific94.0 (3.1 to 4.9)94.292.7 (1.7 to 3.7)98.398.5 (4.7 to 8.4)98.2 3–9 19 20
Testing method
  Photography only107.2 (4.2 to 10.1)99.5102.8 (1.9 to 3.7)97.8109.1 (6.0 to 12.2)99.3 2–11 19 20
  Photography+OCT23.4 (1.2 to 5.5)94.821.8 (0 to 3.7)97.625.5 (1.5 to 9.5)97.7 8 9
Photography
  Film65.6 (2.5 to 8.8)99.361.5 (0.9 to 2.0)92.267.0 (3.4 to 10.7)99.4 2 5–7 11 20
  Digital67.4 (3.2 to 11.7)99.563.8 (1.9 to 5.7)99.0610.0 (5.7 to 14.3)99.3 3 4 8–10 19
Image graded by
  RC at UW–Madison*314.3 (3.6 to 25.0)99.832.4 (1.6 to 3.2)91.6314.4 (5.6 to 23.2)99.7 2 10 11
  RC at USYD†64.4 (3.5 to 5.4)92.363.4 (1.9 to 4.9)98.167.5 (5.1 to 9.9)98.1 3–7 19
  Ophthalmologists or trained raters33.0 (1.7 to 4.2)90.932.6 (1.8 to 3.4)98.134.6 (2.3 to 6.8)96.4 8 9 20
  • *Reading centre at University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  • †Reading centre at University of Sydney.

  • CMR, cellophane macular reflex; ERM, epiretinal membrane; OCT, optical coherence tomography; PMF, preretinal macular fibrosis.