Table 2

Age-standardised prevalence of ERM by study

StudyYearN at-riskCrude prevalence (%)Age-standardised prevalence (%, 95% CI)
CMRPMFAny ERM*CMRPMFAny ERM*
All ERM†
  BDES1987–198848024.8 (4.3 to 5.4)1.7 (1.3 to 2.0)6.4 (5.8 to 7.1)
  BMES1992–199334904.82.77.03.8 (3.2 to 4.4)1.7 (1.3 to 2.1)5.5 (4.8 to 6.2)
  Funagata2000–200215434.01.55.42.7 (1.9 to 3.4)1.1 (0.6 to 1.5)3.7 (2.8 to 4.6)
  HES2006–200765652.20.73.42.3 (1.8 to 2.8)0.6 (0.4 to 0.7)3.5 (2.9 to 4.0)
  Hisayama199817653.20.94.02.2 (1.6 to 2.9)0.5 (0.2 to 0.8)2.8 (2.1 to 3.5)
  Jiangning2012–201320055.03.48.44.5 (3.7 to 5.4)3.1 (2.4 to 3.9)7.6 (6.5 to 8.7)
  LALES2000–2003598216.32.218.516.6 (15.7 to 17.6)2.5 (2.0 to 2.9)19.0 (18.0 to 20.0)
  MESA2002–2004596025.13.828.921.5 (20.1 to 22.5)3.0 (2.6 to 3.4)24.5 (23.4 to 25.6)
  SiMES2004–200632655.85.911.84.7 (4.0 to 5.3)4.6 (4.0 to 5.3)9.3 (8.3 to 10.2)
  SCES2009–201133537.0 (6.1 to 7.9)7.5 (6.6 to 8.3)13.0 (11.9 to 14.2)
  SINDI2007–200933285.44.810.24.7 (4.0 to 5.3)4.1 (3.4 to 4.7)8.8 (7.9 to 9.7)
  VIP1992–199743134.81.76.03.8 (3.3 to 4.4)1.4 (1.1 to 1.8)4.9 (4.4 to 5.5)
Pooled estimates NA 46 371 6.5 (4.2 to 8.9) 2.6 (1.8 to 3.4) 9.1 (6.0 to 12.2)
I 2 99.398.299.5
Primary ERM
  BDES1987–198841254.5 (3.9 to 5.1)1.3 (1.0 to 1.6)5.8 (5.1 to 6.5)
  Beixinjing2010–201133260.60.61.00.6 (0.3 to 0.9)0.4 (0.2 to 0.6)1.0 (0.6 to 1.3)
  HES2006–200761962.00.53.02.1 (1.6 to 2.6)0.4 (0.3 to 0.6)3.1 (2.6 to 3.7)
  Jiangning2012–201318544.63.17.74.3 (3.4 to 5.2)3.0 (2.2 to 3.7)7.3 (6.1 to 8.4)
  LALES2000–2003563115.61.917.516.1 (15.2 to 17.1)2.2 (1.8 to 2.6)18.4 (17.3 to 19.4)
  MESA2002–2004476122.73.326.120.2 (19.1 to 21.3)2.7 (2.3 to 3.1)23.0 (21.7 to 24.1)
  SiMES2004–200627345.14.59.54.5 (3.7 to 5.2)3.8 (3.2 to 4.5)8.3 (7.3 to 9.3)
  SINDI2007–200923243.82.76.54.3 (3.4 to 5.2)2.8 (2.1 to 3.5)7.0 (5.9 to 8.2)
Pooled estimates NA 30 951 7.1 (3.3 to 10.8) 2.0 (1.3 to 2.8) 9.2 (4.7 to 13.8)
I 2 99.697.999.7
Secondary ERM
  HES2006–20072697.13.712.36.7 (1.9 to 11.5)3.7 (0 to 7.8)11.1 (5.0 to 17.3)
  Jiangning2012–201315110.66.617.27.0 (3.4 to 10.7)3.9 (1.2 to 6.6)10.9 (6.6 to 15.2)
  LALES2000–200334527.07.534.519.8 (14.4 to 25.2)6.1 (2.9 to 9.3)25.9 (20.0 to 31.9)
  MESA2002–2004119934.35.840.125.1 (22.2 to 28.1)3.4 (2.5 to 4.4)28.6 (25.6 to 31.6)
  SiMES2004–20065319.813.623.45.3 (2.5 to 8.1)7.1 (5.2 to 9.0)12.4 (9.1 to 15.7)
  SINDI2007–200910049.19.818.85.1 (3.6 to 6.5)6.0 (4.2 to 7.8)11.0 (8.8 to 13.3)
Pooled estimates NA 3499 11.4 (4.4 to 18.5) 5.1 (3.5 to 6.6) 16.6 (9.7 to 23.6)
I 2 97.069.495.4
  • *Any ERM: both CMR and PMF.

  • †All ERM: both primary and secondary ERM.

  • BDES, Beaver Dam Eye Study; BMES, Blue Mountains Eye Study; CMR, cellophane macular reflex; ERM, epiretinal membrane; HES, the Handan Eye Study; LALES, Los Angeles Latino Eye Study; MESA, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis; PMF, preretinal macular fibrosis; SCES, Singapore Chinese Eye Study; SiMES, Singapore Malay Eye Study; SINDI, Singapore Indian Eye study; VIP, Visual Impairment Project.