Table 4

Positive and negative responses to questions concerning perceived health threat, likelihood of action and cues to action and their effect on current use and non-use of highly caffeinated energy drinks

CategoryVariablesResponseCurrent use
No. (%)
Non-use
No. (%)
Total
No. (%)
p Value
Perceived health threat*Susceptibility†Positive97 (27.0)262 (73.0)359 (100.0)<0.001‡
Negative196 (41.4)278 (58.6)474 (100.0)
Total293 (35.2)540 (64.8)833 (100.0)
Severity†Positive175 (28.5)440 (71.5)615 (100.0)<0.001
Negative117 (54.2)99 (45.8)216 (100.0)
Total292 (35.1)539 (64.9)831 (100.0)
Likelihood of action§Benefits†Positive251 (62.8)149 (37.3)400 (100.0)<0.001‡
Negative41 (31.3)90 (68.7)131 (100.0)
Total292 (55.0)239 (45.0)531 (100.0)
Harms†Positive82 (65.1)44 (34.9)126 (100.0)0.010‡
Negative211 (51.8)196 (48.2)407 (100.0)
Total293 (55.0)240 (45.0)533 (100.0)
Cues to action¶Media†Positive193 (36.0)343 (64.0)536 (100.0)0.496
Negative100 (33.7)197 (66.3)297 (100.0)
Total293 (35.2)540 (64.8)833 (100.0)
Recommendations from family members or friends†Positive49 (48.5)52 (51.5)101 (100.0)0.004†
Negative244 (33.3)488 (66.7)732 (100.0)
Total293 (35.2)540 (64.8)833 (100.0)
  • *Perceptions of susceptibility and that the health threat of caffeinated drinks is serious.

  • †Positive: agree or strongly agree; negative: neither agree nor slightly disagree, disagree or strongly disagree.

  • ‡Statistically significant.

  • §Perceptions of the expected benefits or harms of using highly caffeinated energy drinks.

  • ¶The effect of suggestions from media or recommendations from family members or friends on motivation to consume highly caffeinated energy drinks.