Table 1

Characteristics of patients according to access blood flow status

VariablesAccess blood flow (mL/min)p Value
<500500–999.91000–1499.91500–1999.9
Number of patients5317210746
Age (years)67.00 (56.37–76.50)63.00 (50.78–69.00)55.58 (44.16–65.00)56.25 (44.18–65.00)<0.001*
Sex0.37†
 Female28 (52.8)101 (58.7)52 (48.6)23 (50.0)
Diabetes mellitus26 (49.1)67 (39.0)21 (19.6)5 (10.9)<0.001†
Hypertension39 (73.6)121 (70.3)65 (60.7)32 (69.6)0.28†
Blood pressure (mm Hg)
 Systolic120 (100–140)120 (110–140)120 (106–140)122 (110–140)0.24*
 Diastolic70 (60–80)70 (70–80)76 (66–80)76 (70–80)0.13*
Dyslipidaemia13 (24.5)39 (22.7)29 (27.1)7 (15.2)0.45†
CAD25 (47.2)52 (30.2)29 (27.1)12 (26.1)0.05†
CVA9 (17)21 (12.2)3 (2.8)2 (4.3)0.004‡
CHF7 (13.2)16 (9.3)9 (8.4)2 (4.3)0.52‡
COPD4 (7.5)11 (6.4)4 (3.7)3 (6.5)0.70‡
Liver cirrhosis1 (1.9)5 (2.9)5 (4.7)1 (2.2)0.82‡
Malignancy1 (1.9)15 (8.7)7 (6.5)6 (13.0)0.17‡
Cardiac index (L/min/m2)2.80 (2.25–3.40)3.10 (2.63–3.68)3.60 (3.10–4.30)4.20 (3.50–4.73)<0.001*
Cause of ESRD0.001‡
 Diabetic nephropathy18 (34.0)52 (30.2)16 (15.0)3 (6.5)
 GN23 (43.4)84 (48.8)61 (57.0)29 (63.0)
 Hypertensive/ischaemic nephropathy2 (3.8)5 (2.9)2 (1.9)1 (2.2)
 TIN1 (1.9)11 (6.4)4 (3.7)4 (8.7)
 Other2 (3.8)10 (5.8)13 (12.1)7 (15.2)
 Unknown7 (13.2)10 (5.8)11 (10.3)2 (4.3)
Access type0.06†
 Fistula44 (83.0)138 (80.2)97 (90.7)42 (91.3)
 Graft9 (17.0)34 (19.8)10 (9.3)4 (8.7)
Haemodialysis vintage (weeks)247.86 (143.14–433.86)274.50 (126.57–371.71)279.71 (143.43–357.57)306.00 (208.57–389.29)0.48*
Dosage of ESA (U/month)15 000 (6250–22500)14 250 (7000–24000)15 000 (6500–26000)18 500 (8750–26000)0.45*
Laboratory parameters
 Haemoglobin (g/dL)9.85 (9.33–10.50)9.80 (9.20–10.50)9.70 (8.88–10.63)9.40 (8.90–10.58)0.40*
 Albumin (g/dL)4.10 (3.90–4.40)4.30 (4.10–4.50)4.30 (4.10–4.53)4.30 (4.00–4.50)0.048*
 Cholesterol (mg/dL)181.00 (156.00–213.50)189.00 (164.00–220.00)191.00 (166.75–220.00)187.50 (160.25–203.75)0.45*
 Triglyceride (mg/dL)135.50 (92.75–233.50)131.00 (91.00–216.00)146.50 (91.75–222.50)117.00 (86.25–161.75)0.14*
 Ferritin (ng/mL)676.50 (473.25–897.50)613.00 (399.00–828.00)689.00 (477.75–927.50)625.00 (367.25–861.75)0.35*
 TSAT (%)32.87 (25.06–42.08)31.98 (24.61–39.05)32.82 (26.99–41.45)35.32 (26.94–38.85)0.43*
 Sodium (mmol/L)139 (137–140)139 (138–141)139 (138–141)140 (138–141.25)0.27*
 Potassium (mmol/L)4.50 (4.05–5.00)4.80 (4.30–5.15)4.90 (4.48–5.50)4.85 (4.48–5.05)0.008*
 Ionised calcium (mg/dL)4.76 (4.43–5.30)4.76 (4.41–5.05)4.67 (4.33–5.03)4.83 (4.44–5.23)0.37*
 Phosphate (mg/dL)4.59 (3.93–6.05)5.20 (4.59–6.38)5.95 (4.59–6.83)6.00 (4.73–7.53)0.001*
 iPTH (pg/mL)43.62 (11.82–121.47)73.87 (25.28–184.34)90.53 (36.10–177.88)68.00 (22.00–236.50)0.03*
 Kt/V urea1.36 (1.27–1.60)1.41 (1.29–1.55)1.34 (1.23–1.48)1.40 (1.27–1.53)0.03*
Outcomes during follow-up period
 All-cause death33 (62.3)98 (57.0)43 (40.2)16 (34.8)0.002†
 Vascular mortality§14 (26.4)49 (28.5)21 (19.6)9 (19.6)0.31†
  • Data are expressed as n (%) for categorical data and as medians (interquartile ranges) for continuous data.

  • *Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • †Pearson χ2 test.

  • ‡Fisher’s exact test.

  • §Vascular mortality was defined by a composite of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular death.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; ESA, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; GN, glomerulonephritis; iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone; TIN, tubulointerstitial nephritis.; TSAT, transferrin saturation.